AUTHOR: AJAGHAKU, DANIEL LOTANNA
DEPARTMENT: PHARMACOLOGY & TOXICOLOGY
AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA
The anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the ethanolic extract and fractions of Millettia aboensis leaves, a popular Nigerian traditional anti-inflammation remedy was investigated. Also, its antimicrobial activity and safety were assessed. The ethanol extract was fractionated into n-Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and methanol fractions. Phytochemical analysis of the extract and fractions revealed the presence of useful anti inflammatory phyto-compounds – terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins and glycosides.The estimated median lethal dose (LD50) of the crude extract was 4699 mg/kg. The ethanol extract and methanol fraction at 300 and 200 mg/kg showed significant (p<0.05) inhibition of egg albumin induced paw edema. Effects of the extract and methanol fraction on topical edema induced by xylene on mouse ear revealed that methanol fraction at 5 mg had the highest activity with percentage inhibition of 61.90% compared to the 54.76% inhibition produced by Indomethacin at 5 mg. Methanol fraction at 300 mg/kg produced a significant (p<0.05) inhibition of formaldehyde induced arthritis with percentage inhibition of 40.93%. Result of the ulcerogenic effect in rat demonstrated that both the ethanol extract and methanol fraction possess ulcergenic effect though lower than that produced by Indomethacin. Methanol fraction at 400 mg/kg also produced significant (p<0.05) inhibition of leucocytes migration compared with the control. Both the ethanol extract and methanol fraction produced stabilization effect on the heat-induced and hypotonicity induced red blood cell haemolysis. The antioxidant activity of M. aboensis leave extract and fractions was determined by evaluating its potentials at inhibiting 1,1,-diphyenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) stable radical. Chloroform fraction has the highest antioxidant activity with IC50of 39.81 μg/ml. The crude and methanol fraction recorded IC50 of 125.89μg/ml each. Ethyl acetate and n-hexane fraction has the least activity with IC50 316.23 and 630.96 μg/ml respectively. Antimicrobial studies of the extract and fractions revealed activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The ethanol extract has activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi with MIC of 75 mg/ml for both. The methanol fraction has activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli with MIC of 37.5, 75 mg/ml respectively and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans with MIC of 9.38 mg/ml each. Ethyl acetate fraction showed activity against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans with MIC of 150, 75, 37.5, 75 and 150 mg/ml respectively. The chloroform fraction produced activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans with MIC of 9.38 and 37.5 mg/ml respectively. N-hexane fraction does not produce any activity against the test organisms. These results suggest that the ethanol leaf extract of M. aboensis possesses anti-inflammatory activity that is most active in the methanol fraction while the antioxidant activity is more on the chloroform fraction.
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Tags: Acetic Acid Derivatives, Acute Inflammation, Brandykinin, Chronic Inflammation, Colchicine, Fenamates, Free Radicals, Gold Compound, Herbal Medicines, Histamine, Inflammation, Leukotrienes, Lymphocytes, Medicinal Plants, Millettia Aboensis, Monocytes, Monocytes/Macrophages, Neutrophils, Oxicam Derivatives, Phagocytes, Plant Material, Propionic Acid Derivatives, Prostaglandins, Salicylates, Sulphasalazine, Thromboxane A¬2 Prostacyclin