ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY OF SHALLOW AND DEEP BOREHOLES IN EKPAN COMMUNITY, EFFURUN, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA

AUTHOR: OZOEMENAM, JAMES CHIKELUE

DEPARTMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

This study investigated the physicochemical attributes of shallow and deep groundwaters of Ekpan community in Delta State where several anthropogenic activities, including oil exploitation and indiscriminate waste disposal are incessant. Twelve borehole water samples (6 each from shallow and deep aquifers) selected randomly were collected in 500 mL pre-rinsed plastic containers. In situ
measurements for pH, temperature, conductivity and salinity were made electrometrically with HORIBA U-10 water quality checker while total dissolved solids (TDS) were determined with HACH conductivity/TDS meter. Samples for analyses of heavy metals and exchangeable cations were collected in 1 litre sample bottles and fixed with 3ml concentrated HNO3. Those for microbiological analysis were collected in 200 mL sterilized sample bottles. All samples were collected in replicates, stored in iced chest and transferred to the laboratory as soon as possible. Replicate soil samples were collected with stainless auger at 0-15cm depths, composited and transferred to the laboratory in labeled sterile polythene bags. Laboratory analyses were conducted according to standard methods. Descriptive statistics was used to describe data while Pearson correlation (r) was used to determine the influences of the physicochemical variables. The factor analysis procedure, utilizing the principal components analysis (PCA) extraction method was used for data reduction. The single factor ANOVA was used to determine possible differences between the shallow and deep aquifers, while means plots were used for further structure detection. PH, temperature and biological oxygen demand (BOD) varied from 6.00-6.60 (6.22 ± 0.04), 24.00-25.10 (24.50 ± 0.09) mg/l and 2.50-5.82 (4.15 ± 0.21) mg/l, respectively. Salinity and total hardness varied from 3.00-79.40 (32.24 ± 5.74)%o and 4.50-97.69 (37.84 ± 7.20)mg/l, while NO3- and SO42- varied from 0.03-1.35 (0.67 ± 0.11) and 1.80-71.35 (13.97 ± 4.03)mg/l. The trace metals- Pb, Cd and Cr ranged from 0.01-0.15 (0.07 ± 0.01), 0.01-0.64 (0.25 ± 0.05) and 0.02-0.11 (0.08 ± 0.01) mg/l, respectively, while total coliform counts ranged from 1.90 x 105-4.90 x 105 cfu/ml. Mean BOD, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr and total coliform counts were all above the FME maximum permissible limits for drinking water. Four PCs (K+, pH, Hg and Cr ions) which explained about 88.72% of the variability in the original 26 variables formed the extraction solution. There was significant spatial heterogeneity in mean variances of the variables in shallow and deep aquifers [F(21.19)>Fcrit(3.86)] at P<0.05 and this was most contributed by Ca, Na, total hardness, TDS, temperature and EC. pH correlated with Cd (r=0.464), Ni (r=0.504), Mn (r=0.430) and As (r=0.484) at P<0.05, while total coliform counts were influenced by temperature (r=0.843), EC (r=0.766), TDS (r=0.774), BOD (r=0.674), K (r=0.785), Mg (r=0.703), SO42- (r=0.711) and NO3- (r=0.781). The high sand (71.63 ± 1.39%) and low clay compositions (16.58 ± 1.60%) of soils of the area could predispose groundwaters to pollutions from surface contaminants. The distribution of pollutants was mainly related to depth variations of the aquifers and proximity to surface anthropogenic activities. Advanced treatment techniques such as extraction, treatment and re-injection (ETR), recirculating well technology (RWT) and natural attenuation are recommended to remove the trace metal pollutants for public health reasons.

TO VIEW THE FULL CONTENT OF THIS DOCUMENT, PLEASE VISIT THE UNIZIK LIBRARY WEBSITE USING THIS LINK, http://naulibrary.org/dglibrary/admin/book_directory/Thesis/11010.pdf

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2 Responses to “ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY OF SHALLOW AND DEEP BOREHOLES IN EKPAN COMMUNITY, EFFURUN, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA”

  1. Luvnature Says:

    Pls, hw can i get d full content of “Assessment of Water Quality of Shallow and Deep Boreholes in Ekpan Community, Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria”. Pls reply asap, its urgent- Can snd it 2 my e-mail. Thanks

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