PREVALENCE OF THYROID ANTIBODIES IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND THYROID DISEASE PATIENTS

AUTHOR: NWOKOLO IFEOMA HOPE 

DEPARTMENT: CHEMICAL PATHOLOGY

 AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of thyroid antibodies in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and Thyroid disease (TD) patients attending endocrinology clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. The study was designed to evaluate thyroid antibodies, thyroid function test and lipid profile. A total of 200 subjects aged 50-65 years and 100 healthy subjects of the same age rang were recruited as control for the study. The participants were included based on WHO criteria for DM and TD diagnosis. Standard ELISA technique was used to determined antibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb) , thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) ,Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH),Triiodothyronine(T3), Thyroxine(T4),Free Triiodothyronine( FT3) and Free Thyroxine (FT4). While lipid profile and Fasting blood sugar were determined by enzymatic method. The results showed that TgA was found in 43% of DM,62% of TD and 2% of Control subjects(N=100) while TPO Ab was found in 10% of DM,60% of TD and 1% of Control subjects (N=100 ) Thus, there were significant differences in TPOAb and TgAb amongst DM( 85.9±52.7IU/ml and 157.0IU/ml±21.3), TD (677.0IU/ml±102.5 and 384.4IU/ml± 59.0) and control participants (11.8IU/ml±9.8:p<0.05 ). FBG was also significantly higher in DM (9.8mmol/l±5.4) compared to TD (4.3mmol/l±0.4) and control participants(4.1mmol/l±0.4 :p<0.05 in each case).BMI was significantly higher in DM (25.9±5.4) and TD(25.5±3.5;p<0.05) compared with control participants(24.4±3.5). However,thyroid hormones: T4, T3, FT3 and FT4 were significantly higher in TD(15.2μg/dl±5.1, 2.8ng/ml±1.3, 5.0pg/ml±2.5, 2.6ng/dl±1.8) than values obtained in DM(9.1μg/ml±2.3, 1.5ng/ml±0.4, 1.7pg/ml±0.6 1.1ng/dl±0.3) and control participants(9.6μg/ml±2.2 1.2ng/ml±0.3 2.1pg/ml±1.5 1.1ng/dl±0.3:p<0.05 ). There was no significant difference in TSH amongst DM (1.6μIU/ml±0.5), TD (2.5μIU/ml±1.6) and control participants(1.4μIU/ml±0.7) (p>0.05).The mean serum total cholesterol, LDL, Tg were significantly higher in DM(4.5mmol/l±0.7, 2.9mmol/l±0.7,1.1mmol/l±0.3) and TD(4.7mmol/l±1.0, 2.9mmol/l±0.8 1.1mmol/l±0.5) compared with control participants(4.1mmol/l±0.6, 2.4mmol/l±0.5, 1.0mmol/l±0.3) (p<0.05). Mean serum HDL (1.2mmol/l±0.3) were similar amongst DM, TD and Control participants (p>0.05 in each case). There were also significant positive association between Anti TG and AntiTPO(r=0.238, p<0.05) between AntiTG and T3,T4, FT4, FT3 respectively(r=0.441, 0.212, 0.302, 0.287,p<0.05 in each case) This study has demonstrated that the prevalence of thyroid antibodies is relatively high in diabetic and thyroid disease patients in this environment when compared with control subjects.

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