EFFECTS OF OIL SPILLAGE ON WATER QUALITY/ MANAGEMENT IN EMADADJA, UDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA.

AUTHOR: MAGINI ENDURANCE, J 

DEPARTMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

Investigation of the effects of oil Spill on water quality in Emadadja was carried out by identifying a spill affected area (Emadadja) as the study area, while geographically similar but unaffected area (Egini) served as control. Water samples were collected from both surface (streams) and underground (hand- dug wells) sources. Some physico-chemical properties that reflect water quality such as pH value, total hydrocarbon, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, exchangeable cations (Ca+,Mg2+, Na+, K+) anions (NO3-, SO4 2-,PO4 2-, Cl-) Heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Pb, Cr),Biological Oxygen demand (BOD),Dissolved Oxygen( DO),Chemical Oxygen demand (COD), Dissolved Carbon dioxide (CO2)were determined using standard methods and results from the two areas were compared. There was a significant increase in temperature average of (29.38 in surface, 27.62 in underground) decrease in pH average of (3.27 in surface samples, and 3.58 in underground), low dissolved oxygen of (1.63mg/l in surface samples, 2.50mg/l in underground). increased BOD of (14.69mg/l in surface, 12.46mg/l underground), increased CO2(17.86mg/l in surface and 15.33mg/l in underground) and increased THC content of (1.86in surface and 1.57in underground samples) of the oil spill affected study area of Emadadja when compared with the WHO standards and the non affected control area of Egini. Low nitrate values were observed at the study area. This may be due to utilization by the species in absence of sufficient oxygen. The presence of heavy metals and pollutants were lowest in the underground water samples than the surface water samples. Lead showed typical build up in the surface water samples from the study area. Test of the null hypothesis using ANOVA showed that there is significant difference in water quality between the study and control areas for both the surface and groundwater samples. Analysis of questionnaire on causes of oil spill revealed that old/ rusted pipes contribute 59%, sabotage , 18%, pressure on pipe, 21%, and superstitious belief 2%.The results indicate that oil spill has adversely affected the water quality and aquatic live in Emadadja. The study therefore, recommends adequate maintenance of the facilities especially replacement of old/rusted pipes, provision of potable supply of water, and the inclusion of Emadadja in the ongoing remediation technique for ecological cleaning in the Niger Delta States.

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2 Responses to “EFFECTS OF OIL SPILLAGE ON WATER QUALITY/ MANAGEMENT IN EMADADJA, UDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, DELTA STATE, NIGERIA.”

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