MALARIA INFECTIONS AND SOME ASPECT OF VECTOR BIONOMICS IN ABAGANA COMMUNITY, NJIKOKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

AUTHOR: UGHA, CHIBUZOR NELSON 

DEPARTMENT: PARASITOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

Blood samples from 141 participants from different age groups, occupations, villages, marital status, and educational status in Abagana, Anambra state, Nigeria were screened under the microscope for the presence of malaria parasites using stained thick films. The packed cell volume of the participants were also verified and matched with their infection status. Of the 141 samples examined, 76 were Plasmodium malaria parasite indicating an overall prevalence of 53.90%. The findings further showed that malaria parasitaemia and intensity are dependent on age. Of the 76(53.90%) malaria positive samples, 44(57.89%) were females and 32(42.11%) were males showing a higher prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in females than their male counterparts. Higher prevalence was also noted in age groups 0 – 5 years 10(90.91%). It shows that younger persons (0 – 5years) were more infected compared to older persons. Mosquito larvae were sampled from different breeding sites in Abagana using ladle. Indoor-biting and resting adult mosquitoes were collected using pyrethrum knockdown method (PKC). Outdoor biting mosquitoes were collected using human volunteers as bait and collectors. 177 mosquitoes made up of three mosquito species were collected as larvae, 78(44.07%) Aedes albopictus, 67(37.85%) Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus 32(18.08%) formed the bulk of the larval collection. 152 adult mosquitoes comprising three mosquito species were collected in different villages. Anopheles gambiae 95(62.5%), constituted the highest percentage of indoor-biting and resting mosquitoes. A room density of 8.4 mosquito/room/night was recorded as follows: 5.3 mosquito/room/night for Anopheles gambiae, 1.8 mosquito/room/night for Culex quinquefasciatus and 1.3 for Aedes aegypti. The individuals in Abagana were subject to mosquito bites and mosquito-borne diseases. Self-protection by the individuals and general provision of mosquito control strategies in the community is hereby suggested. The study showed that a substantial number of people in Abagana were infected by malaria parasites. This could be attributed to the existence of many vector breeding sites in the area as well as favourable climatic conditions favouring development and transmission of malaria parasites. Improved drainage to reduce breeding sites and early treatment of malaria cases are suggested.

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