COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF MOSQUITO LARVAE IN OBA TOWN OF IDEMILI SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ANAMBRA STATE

AUTHOR: OBIECHINA IZUCHUKWU ONYEDIKACHI

DEPARTMENT: PARASITOLOGY AND ENTOMOLOGY

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

Studies were carried out between November 2010 and June 2011 to assess mosquito species abundance and their breeding sites in Oba, Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra State. Two villages of Umumpamma-Aborji and Isu-Umuabu were surveyed using standard entomological procedures. Results identified three hundred and thirty nine (339) potential mosquito foci, which were grouped into: cans/containers/tyres (56.64%); ditches/pools/swamps (11.21%); domestic run-offs/gutters (11.50%); tree holes/leaf axils/coconut husks (15.63%) and vehicle tyre tracks/human and animal foot prints (5.01%). A total of two thousand, three hundred and nineteen (2319) mosquito larvae were collected and subsequently reared to adults. Nine hundred and sixty one (961) emerged as adults comprising four genera; Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, and Toxorynchites. They were identified up to species level, including Anopheles gambiae (14.78%), An. funestus (0.94%), Aedes aegypti (27.99%), Ae. albopictus (18.11%), Ae. africanus (2.60%), Culex quinquefasciatus (32.99), C. tigripes (1.98%) and Toxorynchites viridibasis (0.62%). Soft drinks and beer cans/containers/tyres (61.28%) were the most preferred breeding habitats for all mosquito species except, T. viridibasis. Umumpamma-Aborji and Isu-Umuabu villagescontributed 55.02% and 44.98%, respectively, to the total number of mosquito samples in the study area of Oba. The mosquito larval abundance in these two villages were not significantly (P>0.05) different. It is interesting to note that An. funestus and T. viridibasis were present only in Umumpamma-Aborji village but none in Isu-Umuabu. The types of breeding sites, species of mosquito, their Simpson’s indices of abundance as well as their seasonal distribution varied significantly (P<0.01) during the study. Most identified habitats were largely associated with human activities. The continued presence of Anopheles spp. and Culex spp. would ensure endemicity of malaria and filariasis in Oba, while the presence of Aedes spp. points towards the potential risks of yellow fever and arbo-virus diseases in the area. The results are discussed and the need for concerted efforts in mosquito control in Oba suggested.

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