PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF ROOT, STEM AND LEAF EXTRACTS OF ACANTHUS MONTANUS (T.ANDERSON).

AUTHOR: IKEZU UJUPAUL JOY MARGARET

DEPARTMENT: PURE AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

Acanthus montanus of the family Acanthacea which is widely used traditionally for medicinal purposes was worked on to asses the pharmaceutical active ingredient of the leaf, stem and root. The phytochemical screening using some standard test indicated that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, .proteins, acidic compounds, reducing sugar and carbohydrates were present. These classes of compounds are known to posses therapeutic properties against several pathogens and support the ethnomedical uses of this plant. A weighed quantity of each of the pulverized plant parts were homogenized for eight hours using MeOH/ H2O (4:1) so as to extract alkaloids, phenolic ,fats and wax. The bioassay using the punched agar diffusion method showed that other classes of phytocompounds were active against test organisms which include Staphylococcus aureus, E .coli, Klebsiella aerogenes ,Salmonella sp,Pseudomonas pyocyania,Enterobacter aerogenes, Baccilus sp,S. albus, Proteus vulgaris, and fungi like Candida alblican, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus. Chromatographic techniques (PTLC) and (TLC) were used to separate 14 pure compounds from the active classes, eleven of this fractions were present in isolable quantities and were subjected to structural elucidation using spectroscopic instruments such as FTIR, UV, H1NMR, C13NMR, and GCMS. The spectral analysis suggested the presence of the following compounds in the plant: (1) Palmitin, 1, 2- di – 2 –amino-ethylhydrogen phosphate (2) Glycerol 1, 2-dipalmitate (3) Butylamine, 3- methyl-1-[5-tetrazolyl]- butandioate piperidine (4) 3 –Hydroxycholestan- 5-yl acetate (5) 4-(3,5-Di-tetrt-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl butyl acrylate (6) 6- hydroxyl-3- (3- 5- dimethoxyl-phenyl)benzo(b)furan (7) 1-methyl-2-propyl-pyrazolium bromide (8) 16- hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. (9)3-nitrophthalic acid-bis-(2-ethylhexyl) ester. (10) 4-bromo-2,6 bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxylbenzyl)phenol, (11) Androstan-3-one. The Antimicrobial Analyses of the eleven extracts on the test organisms using Average Diameter Zones of Inhibition, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal and Fungicidal Concentration (MBC) and (MFC) showed that they were active against all the test bacteria and fungi. The result portrayed that the extracts were highly bactericidal and fungicidal and of broad spectrum activities. The antimicrobial activities were compared with known standard antibiotics like Lincocin, Ammoxil and Augmentin and was discovered that the extracts were potent and effective in both fungi and bacteria more than the antibiotics. The antibacterial results suggested that the extracts can serve as potential raw material for new or known antibiotics. The AAS result for the trace metals in the root, stem and leaves showed the presence of 10 elements in different concentrations. This work has shown that Acanthus montanus contain derivatives of palmitate, phenols, benzofuran, piperidine , amino phosphate etc which have been used to treat threatened abortion, menstrual irregularities, furuncles, aches and pains, cough, cancer, urogenital infections etc. These suggest that the plant extracts can equally be useful as raw material for similar pharmaceutical applications. 

TO VIEW THE FULL CONTENT OF THIS DOCUMENT, PLEASE VISIT THE UNIZIK LIBRARY WEBSITE USING THIS LINK, http://naulibrary.org/dglibrary/admin/book_directory/Thesis/11075.pdf

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