AUTHOR: IKEZU UJUPAUL JOY MARGARET
DEPARTMENT: PURE AND INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY
AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA
Acanthus montanus of the family Acanthacea which is widely used traditionally for medicinal purposes was worked on to asses the pharmaceutical active ingredient of the leaf, stem and root. The phytochemical screening using some standard test indicated that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, .proteins, acidic compounds, reducing sugar and carbohydrates were present. These classes of compounds are known to posses therapeutic properties against several pathogens and support the ethnomedical uses of this plant. A weighed quantity of each of the pulverized plant parts were homogenized for eight hours using MeOH/ H2O (4:1) so as to extract alkaloids, phenolic ,fats and wax. The bioassay using the punched agar diffusion method showed that other classes of phytocompounds were active against test organisms which include Staphylococcus aureus, E .coli, Klebsiella aerogenes ,Salmonella sp,Pseudomonas pyocyania,Enterobacter aerogenes, Baccilus sp,S. albus, Proteus vulgaris, and fungi like Candida alblican, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus flavus. Chromatographic techniques (PTLC) and (TLC) were used to separate 14 pure compounds from the active classes, eleven of this fractions were present in isolable quantities and were subjected to structural elucidation using spectroscopic instruments such as FTIR, UV, H1NMR, C13NMR, and GCMS. The spectral analysis suggested the presence of the following compounds in the plant: (1) Palmitin, 1, 2- di – 2 –amino-ethylhydrogen phosphate (2) Glycerol 1, 2-dipalmitate (3) Butylamine, 3- methyl-1-[5-tetrazolyl]- butandioate piperidine (4) 3 –Hydroxycholestan- 5-yl acetate (5) 4-(3,5-Di-tetrt-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl butyl acrylate (6) 6- hydroxyl-3- (3- 5- dimethoxyl-phenyl)benzo(b)furan (7) 1-methyl-2-propyl-pyrazolium bromide (8) 16- hydroxyhexadecanoic acid. (9)3-nitrophthalic acid-bis-(2-ethylhexyl) ester. (10) 4-bromo-2,6 bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxylbenzyl)phenol, (11) Androstan-3-one. The Antimicrobial Analyses of the eleven extracts on the test organisms using Average Diameter Zones of Inhibition, Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal and Fungicidal Concentration (MBC) and (MFC) showed that they were active against all the test bacteria and fungi. The result portrayed that the extracts were highly bactericidal and fungicidal and of broad spectrum activities. The antimicrobial activities were compared with known standard antibiotics like Lincocin, Ammoxil and Augmentin and was discovered that the extracts were potent and effective in both fungi and bacteria more than the antibiotics. The antibacterial results suggested that the extracts can serve as potential raw material for new or known antibiotics. The AAS result for the trace metals in the root, stem and leaves showed the presence of 10 elements in different concentrations. This work has shown that Acanthus montanus contain derivatives of palmitate, phenols, benzofuran, piperidine , amino phosphate etc which have been used to treat threatened abortion, menstrual irregularities, furuncles, aches and pains, cough, cancer, urogenital infections etc. These suggest that the plant extracts can equally be useful as raw material for similar pharmaceutical applications.
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Tags: Acanthus montanus Botanically Classification, Acanthus montanus Description/Used, Alkaloid, Analgesic Activity, Anti-Abortifacient Activity, Anti-Bacteria Antibiotics, Anti-Convulsant Activity, Antibiotics, Antipyretic Activity, Antispamodic Activity, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Baccilus species, Candida alblicans, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cold Infusion, Communication Role, Compresses, Decotion, Defensive Role, Enterobacter aerogenes, Eschericia coli, Extract, Flavonoids, Formulations-Industrial Utilization, Functional Role, Gastrointestinal Diseases, Glycosides, Hepatoprotective Activity, Herbal Teas, Herbal Wine, Human Pathogenic Organism-Bacteria and Fungi, Inflammatory/ Infectious Diseases, Infusion, Juice, Liniment, Maceration, Medicinal Plant Risk, Medicinal Plants History, Obsertics/ Gynaecology, Other Uses, Pharmacological Uses, Poultice, Powder, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas pyocyania, Pure and Industrial Chemistry-Phd-2012, Respiratory Diseases, Salmonella sp, Saponin, Secondary Metabolism, Some Human Pathogenic Fungi, Staphylococcus aureus, Steroids, Streptococcus species, Terpeniods, Terpenoids/Steroids Nature Roles, Tinctures, Traditional Uses in African Societies, Uses of Anti-Biotics