PAN AFRICANISM, NATIONALISM AND DIARCHY IN THE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY OF NNAMDI AZIKIWE

AUTHOR: EZEFUNAMBA PATRICK UDENNA

DEPARTMENT: PHILOSOPHY

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

Pan Africanism, Nationalism and Diarchy are theoretical foundations on which Nnamdi Azikiwe’s vision of reclaiming of Africa’s freedom and her identity is based. The imperative for African freedom is articulated in these books, namely, My Odyssey, Renascent Africa and Zik: A Selection from the Speeches of Nnamdi Azikiwe. He proposes the emergence of a new and free Africa characterized by political autonomy, economic prosperity and a refusal to accept a destiny of subjugation and servitude. His proposal for Nationalism is articulated in Political Blueprint of Nigeria in which he traces the historical background to Nigeria’s nationhood, spells out the basic stages of political development for the Nigerianization and Africanization of the civil service and political administration in the context of African political independence. Given the historic excesses of nationalism, Zik avoids particularistic nationalism, the political program claiming that some ethnonation should have its state, without extending the claim to all ethno-nations, either by omission (unreflective particularistic nationalism), or by explicitly specifying who is excluded (invidious nationalism). Given the fact that this invidious variant plunged Nigeria into a bitter war, Zik’s projection of tribalism as instrument for national unity deserves more than a cursory look. Zik offered a system of government which he called Diarchy. In the wake of Yakubu Gowon’s public request for “The Type of Government that will Succeed the Military” Zik suggested a coalition government between civilians and soldiers in his book Democracy with Military Vigilance, declaring that there should not be an immediate transfer of power to complete civilian rule, rather a modus operandi for a combined civilian cum military government on a democratic basis for five years, after which period the continuation of such regime should be reviewed in the light of experience and reason. This work shows through analytical appraisal that Zik’s call for relentless struggle for political freedom largely led to Nigerian political independence. His nationalism offers the seminal ideas for what the Nigerian civil service, arms of government and constitution have come to be today. But the question is: is his Diarchy (a coalition of civilian and military government) a timely tonic in the nation’s and Africa’s political development or does it concede too much to the situated pressure of the time, the pressure of the military adventures in Africa’s geopolitical terrain? To what extent would Diarchy as a system of government fit into the furniture or superstructure of African communalism, consensus democracy, pre-capitalist socio-economic ethos, one party traditional system of government and finally political stability and economic emancipation in a globalized world order. This work wants to show through critical analysis how his philosophy offer prospects to be built upon.

TO VIEW THE FULL CONTENT OF THIS DOCUMENT, PLEASE VISIT THE UNIZIK LIBRARY WEBSITE USING THIS LINK,  http://www.naulibrary.org/dglibrary/admin/book_directory/Thesis/10367.pdf

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