THE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Mimosa pudica AND Ocimum gratissimum LEAVES ON NICOTINE INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN WISTER ALBINO RATS

AUTHOR: ADINDU, CHUKWUEMEKA STEVE

DEPARTMENT: APPLIED BIOCHEMISTRY
AFFILIATION: BIOSCIENCES

The hypolipidemic activity of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Mimosa pudica and Ocimum gratissimum were studied. Hypolipidemic activity was screened by inducing hyperlipidemia with nicotine in male wister albino rats. Serum levels of various biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and HDL cholesterol were determined. The specific activity of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of cholesterol and other steroids was also determined. Results showed that the rats that were treated with nicotine had a significant increase (p<0.05) in total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL and a decrease in HDL when compared with the control group. The ethanolic extracts of both plants showed a significant (p0.05) difference in the hypolipidemic activity of both plants. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the specific activity of HMG-CoA reductase within all the groups that were treated with nicotine suggesting that the hypolipidemic effect of the extracts was not elicited by inhibition of the activity of the HMG-CoA reductase. However, the enzyme showed a reduced activity in the group that received Atorvastatin relative to the control group. Nicotine induces hyperlipidemia by the elevation of plasma free fatty acids which may serve as building blocks for the synthesis of both cholesterol and triglycerides. The phytochemical analysis of Mimosa pudica leaves showed the composition of alkaloids, saponins and tannins to be 1.50g/100g, 0.12g/100g and 0.10g/100g while that of Ocimum gratissimum were 1.00g/100g, 0.06g/100g and 0.10g/100g respectively.

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