EFFECTS OF ESCRAVOS CRUDE OIL ON THE STRUCTURES AND BIOCHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF VISCERAL ORGANS AND REPRODUCTIVE STATUS OF CHINCHILLA RABBITS

AUTHOR: OKOYE, JUDE OGECHUKWU

DEPARTMENT: MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

This study aimed to investigate the disrupting effects of Escravos crude oil on the structures and biochemical components of the visceral organ (heart, liver, kidney, ovary and testis) and reproductive status of Chinchilla rabbits. A total of forty Chinchilla rabbits aged twelve to fourteen weeks and weighing 1.2 to 1.45 kg were used. The animals were divided into five groups containing 8 animals each and orally administered the doses of 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/kg body weight of Escravos crude oil, corresponding to groups B, C, D and E, respectively for 28 days while group A (control) received distilled water. Blood samples collected from the animals were analyzed by the following methods: microplate enzyme immunoassay (estradiol, testosterone and progesterone), high sensitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (C-reactive protein), Modified-IFCC method (creatine kinase), enzymatic end point method (total cholesterol), alkaline picrate method (creatinine), urease-berthelot method (urea) and colourimetric method (aspartate and alanine transaminases). The tissues grossed from the excised organs were processed and stained by Gomori’s trichrome, Van Gieson’s and Haematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. The Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) expressed in Mean ± standard Deviation (SD) showed dose dependent significant increase in the serum concentrations of estradiol (18.32± 6.46 to 69.41± 2.89 pg/ml), testosterone ( 0.27± 0.10 to 5.22± 1.57 ng/ml), total cholesterol (1.33± 0.20 to 2.96± 0.17 mmol/l), creatine kinase (9.42± 4.36 to 20.15± 3.98 U/l), creatinine (0.33± 0.08 to 0.38± 0.06 μmol/l), C-reactive protein (0.24± 0.11 to 0.46± 0.07 mg/dl), alanine transaminase (27.83± 2.71 to 40.00± 3.54 IU/l) and aspartate transaminase (17.00± 3.16 to 41.40± 10.52 IU/l) and a dose dependent significant decrease in serum progesterone concentration (23.88± 6.88 to 10.45± 4.50 ng/l) in the treated group when compared to the control group (p<0.05). An insignificant increase in serum concentration of urea (4.97± 1.44 to 6.00± 1.35 mmol/l) was also observed (p>0.05). More so, dose dependent increases in the weight of organs (except for the testes which showed mild increases) and decreases in total body weight of the treated groups were observed when compared to the control group (p<0.05). The histological findings include lymphocytic infiltration, glomeronephritis, hepatitis, fibrosis, hemochromatosis, hyperplasia of the seminiferous tubules, oedema in the heart, ovarian cysts, endothelial cell proliferation (preneoplastic stage) and tissue necrosis among others. The potency of Escravos crude oil was highlighted in the toxicity induced in the visceral organs and reproduction system.

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