PLASMID PROFILE OF MULTI DRUG RESISTANCE OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL SPECIMENS OF PATIENTS ATTENDING MADONNA UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, ELELE, RIVERS STATE.

AUTHOR: OWOTUOMA, OKIEMUTE

DEPARTMENT: MEDICAL LABORATORY SCIENCE

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

 Antimicrobial resistance among bacteria is increasing worldwide. This is a major public health problem and a cause of both substantial morbidity and mortality and among hospitalised patients. Plasmid which occur naturally in bacteria, is a DNA molecule that is separate from, and can replicate independently of the chromosomal DNA. Multidrug resistance is made possible through spontaneous mutation or by DNA transfer. Multidrug resistance and plasmid profile of 123 clinical isolates from 217 specimens of patients attending Madonna University Teaching Hospital Elele, Nigeria were undertaken. Clinical samples used included urine, wound swabs high vaginal swabs semen, urethral swabs and sputum. Pure cultures of bacterial isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests using agar diffusion method. Plasmid profile was carried out by plasmid extraction using alkalilysis method after growing pure bacteria culture on Mueller Hinton medium. Agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA was carried out. Plasmid curing was undertaken by treatment with SDS. Bacteria species isolated included Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphilococcus saprophyticus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Among the Gram negative bacterial isolates, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed the highest multidrug resistance 23(92%) to some antibiotic discs. Gram positive bacteria, Staphilocococcus saprophyticus showed highest resistance level to multidrug antibiotic discs used. Eighty and half percent of the bacterial isolates showed multidrug resistance. Plasmid size ranging from 3.0kb to 25.2kb were detected from 76.7% clinical bacterial isolates. Isolates with multidrugs resistance were found to possess plasmids. Isolates with plasmid were cured of plasmids. Curing suggests that resistant gene was conferred by plasmid. Statistical analysis showed positive correlation (P < 0.01) between the number of isolates acquiring multidrug resistance and number of plasmids( Table 4). Clinical bacterial isolates showed a high percentage of resistance (57.1 – 100%) to amoxicillin, augmentin, cotrimoxazole, erythromycin and ampiclox.

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