Effect of Cucurbita Pepo Fruit on Hematological Parameters, Antioxidant Enzymes and Lipid Indices In Rats Exposed To Secondhand Cigarette Smoke

Author: Nnaji-Ihedinmah Lucy .I.
Department: Applied Biochemistry
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

The study was aimed at investigating the possible use of Cucurbita pepo Linn (Cucurbitaceae) peel, seed and pulp in combating the effect of secondhand cigarette smoke in male wistar albino rats with the objective of evaluating their probable mode of action on lipid peroxidation marker malondialdehyde, antioxidant enzymes , lipid profile and hematological indices. The study was carried out with twenty-five male wistar albino rats which were randomly divided into five groups (A,B,C,D and E) of five rats each. The positive control (Group A) and the negative control (Group B) groups were fed with standard feed and water, while the rats in Test groups C , D and E were fed with water and a combination of the standard feed and the peel, seed and pulp respectively in the ratio 1:1.The rats in group B, group C, group D , and group E were exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke (SHS) for 1 hour everyday for 28 days alongside feeding while the group A rats was also fed for 28 days without exposure to SHS. Serum MDA level was evaluated while the activities superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase were assayed. Serum total cholesterol (TC) triglcerides (TAG) ,low density lipoprotein cholesterol ( LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were evaluated as well as WBC, RBC, hemoglobin(Hb) and platelet count. MDA level in group B was significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared to the other groups. SOD activity in group C was significantly higher (p<0.05) than A, B and D while in group E; SOD activity was significantly higher than in group B. GPx activity in group C was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to B, D and E . There was no significant difference in catalase activity in all the groups assayed. For lipid profile, there was no significant difference in TC levels in all the groups analyzed. TAG levels in group D was significantly lower (p< 0.05) compared to A, B and E. LDL-C levels in groups C and D were significantly lower (P< 0.05) when compared to group B while group D LDL-C was significantly lower (P< 0.05) than group A. HDL-C level was significantly higher in group E than in group D while there was no significant difference from the other groups when compared to the control. For hematological studies, WBC in group B was significantly lower (p< 0.05) than in group A while RBC in B was significantly higher (p< 0.05) compared to groups A and E. There was no significant difference in hemoglobin levels in all the groups when compared to the control . The platelet count in group C was significantly higher (p< 0.05) when compared to groups A, B and E. In conclusion, the peel, seed and pulp had a positive effect on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes, lipid profile and hematological indices of rats exposed to SHS.

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