Author: Ngene Okechukwu Micheal
Department: Applied Microbiology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka
A research about the prevalence of HIV and TB among patients attending Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS) Clinic in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi was carried out. Five hundred (500) samples made up of sputum and 2ml of blood were collected from the patients after their informed consent. The sputum samples were used for microscopy for the diagnosis of TB while the blood was used to screen for HIV. The sputum samples were of two categories, un-centrifuged and centrifuged samples. They were stained for AFB (Acid Fast Bacilli) using the Ziehl Neelsen technique. Analysis of the results showed a prevalence of 52 (10.4%) and 61 (12.2%) for TB from the two categories of sputum samples with a statistical significance since P˂0.05. When the two categories of sputum samples were compared based on Correlation coefficient, a statistical significance was recorded because P˂0.01. The results also showed that males were more affected (6.6% and 7.2%) in both categories of sputum samples than their female (3.8% and 5.0%) counterparts while the age group mostly affected is 31-40 (4% and 4.8%). The HIV screening results showed a prevalence of 254 (50.8%). Even-though it is not statistically significant according to calculations (P˃0.05), it raises huge medical concerns. Females were more affected by the scourge 156 (31.2%) than males 98 (19.6%). Just like TB, the age range of the participants affected mostly by HIV is 31-40 (17.8%). A prevalence of 23 (4.6%) and 32 (6.4%) (P˂0.05) were recorded for HIV/TB co-infection from un-centrifuged and centrifuged sputum samples. The prevalence difference of 9 (1.8%) was as a result of concentration technique carried out with jik – house hold bleach before staining. A comparative analysis of HIV, TB and HIV/TB co-infection among the participants based on their socio-economic status showed that students were more affected by HIV and TB (17.6%, 3.6%) separately while participants in the business category were more affected by HIV/TB co-infection (2.2%). Males were more affected by TB and HIV/TB co-infection (6.6%, 2.4%) than females (3.8%, 2.2%) when un-centrifuged sputum samples were taken into consideration. But in centrifuged sputum samples, females were slightly more affected by HIV/TB co-infection (3.4%) than males (3.0%).
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Tags: Acid Fast Bacilli, Co-morbidity, Directly Observed Treatment Short-course, HIV-Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Mycobacterium, Ngene Okechukwu Micheal, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Sputum Samples, Ziehl Neelsen Techniques