COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICACY OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM, AND CONVENTIONAL ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE URINE OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN AWKA

Author: Oguejiofor Ann
Department: Applied Microbiology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Urinary tract infection is one of the commonest medical complications in pregnancy and there is increase in resistance of the urine pathogens to routinely used antibiotics. Comparative analysis of the extracts of Ocimum gratissimum,Gongronema latifolium and conventional antibiotics was done against different bacterial isolates from urine of pregnant women in Awka to evaluate their antibacterial effect. Three hundred urine samples were collected, analysed and cultured. Sixty three out of the three hundred samples were culture positive giving a prevalence of 21%.
Prevalence of bacteriuria, pyuria and nitrite among culture positive samples were 95%, 71.88% and 90.91% respectively. Five different organisms were isolated which are Escherichia coli 27(42.86%), Proteus mirabilis 14(22.22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 10(15.87%), Staphylococcus aureus 8(12.70%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(6.35%). Susceptibility test of the isolates to nine different antibiotics was done using MIC, MBC and well-in agar method. The interaction of the plant extracts with conventional antibiotics was also done in vitro using agar overlay inoculum susceptibility disc method. Susceptibility tests of the isolates showed that the organisms were more susceptible to Cefuroxime (MIC = 0.009mg/ml) and more resistant to Augumentin (MIC >1.562mg/ml) and Amoxycillin (MIC >2.5mg/ml). Susceptibility test using well-in agar method showed that the methanolic extract of O. gratissimum gave higher inhibition zone diameter (11mm) more than the methanolic extract of G. latifolium (10mm), aqueous extracts of O. gratissimum (8mm) and aqueous extract of G. latifolium (7mm). The results showed that O. gratissimum had more antibacterial effect than G. latifolium and the methanolic extracts of the plants were more efficacious than the aqueous extracts. The interaction of the antibiotics and extracts showed good but varying in vitro activities against all the isolates tested. Ofloxacillin and Nitrofurantoin had the highest number of synergistic effects of the interactions (9) while Cefuroxime and Gentamycin had the highest number of antagonistic effects (8). The methanolic extracts of the plants showed synergism 22(61.11%) more than the aqueous extracts 14(38.89%) and the overall synergistic effect 36(20%) of the interaction was more than the antagonistic effect 24(13.3%).

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