PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CRUDE ETHANOL EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII ON THE LIVER AND KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS AGAINST INDUCED TOXICITY WITH ACETAMINOPHEN

Author:Okeke Fidelis Odira
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidative protective property of crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves on the liver and kidney of albino rats against induced toxicity with acetaminophen. A total number of 30 albino rats of the Wistar strain used were divided into five (5) groups of six animals each. Group A, served as normal control and received distilled water orally for 20 days. Group B received normal diet for 20 days, while Group C animals were administered with 200mg/kg body weight of the crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves once daily for 20 days. GroupD animals received 400mg/kg body weight of the crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves once daily for 20 days, while Group E received 600mg/kg body weight of the crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves once daily for 20 days. A single oral chronic dose of acetaminophen (2500mg/kg body weight) was administered to all the rats in groups B-E on the 21st day of the study after an overnight fast of 14hours to induce toxicity. The rats were sacrificed forty-eight hours post acetaminophen administration. Blood was collected into a sterile dry container, allowed to clot and centrifuged to get the serum from which the biochemical parameters for liver and kidney function tests were estimated. The activity levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined according to the modified methods of Tietz, (1996), while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined according to the methods of Cheesbrough, (2000) and bilirubin according to the methods of Walters and Gerard as modified by Tietz, (1996). Serum creatinine level was determined by the methods of Tietz, (1986), while urea was determined using the diacetyl monoxime improved methods of Mohammed and Boyde, (1980). Before this study was carried out, ethical approval was sourced for and obtained from the ethical committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus. The results showed that there were significant increases in the mean serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine in the study groups compared to the control group (P<0.5). There were also obvious lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltrates and fulminant necrosis in both the liver and kidney of the study groups compared to those of the control. However, pretreatment with graded oral doses (200, 400 and 600mg/kg/body weight) of the crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves for twenty days prior to acetaminophen administration resulted in a significant decrease in the mean serum concentrations of these biochemical parameters to values near those of the control and the amelioration of the observable histopathological changes, indicating that crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves may enhance recuperation of hepatic and renal cells from acetaminophen-induced damage in acetaminophen intoxicated rats.

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