Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Diabetes mellitus subjects are susceptible to increased free radicals generation and thus need a competent antioxidant defence system to protect cellular components from free radical induced damages. This study was aimed at evaluating the level of antioxidant status in diabetes mellitus (DM) type II subjects visiting the outpatient diabetic clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 160 subjects aged 53± 10 years, were recruited for this study. The test subjects consists 80 (Female: 43; Male: 37) already confirmed diabetes mellitus type II subjects, while the control subjects consists 80 (Female: 43; Male: 37) apparently healthy subjects. The test subjects were further sub-grouped into good, poor and very poorly controlled based on their glycaemic control using a cut-off of <7% for HbA1C. Eight millilitres of whole blood was collected from the participating subjects and aliquoted as follows: 1.5mls into fluoride oxalate bottle for glucose estimation (mg/dl), 1.5mls into tri-potassium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) bottle for glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (%) estimation and 5mls into plain bottle for the estimation of Uric acid (UA) (mg/dl), serum albumin (Alb) (g/dl), Total bilirubin (T.BIL) (mmol/l), Glutathione reductase (GR) (U/I) and Total antioxidant status (TAS) (mmol/l). Results from this study showed that the mean differences in RBG (196.44 ± 44.72), HbA1C (9.95 ± 1.75), UA (8.80 ± 2.64) and T.BIL (9.70 ± 3.48) were significantly higher in the test subjects compared to the control subjects RBG (107.01 ± 12.28), HbA1c (5.18 ± 1.04), UA (7.83 ± 2.44) and T.BIL (8.57 ± 2.59) (p< 0.05). The mean differences of GR (45.43 ± 19.68) and TAS (1.85 ± 1.00) were significantly lower in the test subjects compared to the control subjects GR (60.78 ± 15.06) and TAS (2.47 ± 1.95) (p 0.05). Out of the 80 test subjects only 3.75% had good glycaemic control, 13.75% had poor glycaemic control and 82.5% had very poor glycaemic control. There were positive correlations between RBG and Albumin (r= 0.484; p=0.000), and also between HbA1C and TAS (r= 0.330; p=0.003). There was negative correlation between RBG and GR (r= -0.227; p=0.043). This study concludes that there is antioxidant depletion in diabetes subjects. Also, from the results of this study, subjects with increased diabetic duration have poor diabetic management.

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