ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT AND FRACTIONS OF SPONDIAS MOMBINLINN ANARCADIACAE

Author: Duru Chioma Adaeze
Department: Pharmacology and Toxicology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Spondias mombin is used ethnomedicinally in Nigeria and other parts of the world in the treatment of various diseases including epilepsy, arthritis, anxiety, wounds and schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated acute and subchronic toxicity of ethanol extract as well as in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of ethanol extract and fractions of leaves of Spondias mombin harvested fresh and shed dried. The ability of the extract and fractions to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (0.6 mMol) was used to assess their in vitro antioxidant activities while in vivo antioxidant activity was evaluated using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Acute toxicity studies of the extract showed that the median lethal dose (LD50) was above 5000mg/kg body weight and no death was recorded throughout the 90 days subchronic toxicity test. The test extract and fractions exhibited potential scavenging effects on DPPH radical with methanol fraction exhibiting the highest scavenging activity (IC50 2μg/ml), followed by chloroform (IC50) and ethanol (IC5044μg/ml). Methanol showed a higher DPPH scavenging activity than the standard, ascorbic acid (IC50 4μg/ml). CCL4 decreased serum levels of antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase) and increased the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in untreated animals while significant increases in these enzymes and decreases in MDA were observed in the treatment groups, with the methanol fraction exhibiting the highest in vivo antioxidant effect even more than the positive control. The extract (750 mg/kg, 1500mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) showed no significant effect on haematological and biochemical parameters. Significance between control and extract treated groups were determined using students t-test and two way ANOVA. Differences between means were considered significant at p<0.05.Histopathological studies showed no obvious pathological changes in the liver and kidney architecture of treated rats when compared to those of the control group. These findings substantiate the high safety profile and the free radical scavenging/antioxidant activity of Spondias mombin leaves and it could be a valuable herbal alternative to synthetic drugs for myriad of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

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