Archive for the ‘Bio Sciences’ Category

PREVALENCE AND INTENSITY OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS / SCHISTOSOMIASIS AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN IJEBU NORTH L.G.A. OGUN STATE

July 29, 2016

Author: Poopola Omolara Dorcas
Department: Applied Microbiology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and intensity of urinary schistosomiasis and other urinary tract infections among school children in Ijebu North L.G.A, Ogun State, Nigeria. Three hundred and seventy-two urine samples were randomly collected from primary school children (one hundred and eighty-six samples each from both sexes) and analysed using standard microbiological procedures. Results of this study showed that, none of the examined subjects had urinary schistosomiasis. However, an elevated trend of bacterial flora were isolated as follows; Escherichia coli 49.4% (88 male), 49.5% (96 female), Pseudomonas aeroginosa 18.5% (33 male), 18.6% (36 female), Klebsiella pneumoniae 16.9% (30 male), 17.0% (33 female), Proteus mirabilis 6.7% (12 male), 7.2% (14 female), Serratia marcensens 3.4% (6 male), 3.1% (6 female), Enterobacter aerogenes 5.1% (9 male), 4.6% (9 female) for Gram negative organisms while the Gram positive ones were Staphylococcus aureus 55.3% (78 male), 60.6% (140 female), Staphylococcus saprophyticus 24.1% (34 male), 20.8% (48 female), Enterococcus faecalis 13.5% (19 male), 14.3% (33 female), and Bacillus subtilis 7.1% (10 male), 4.3% (10 female). Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli showed 100% resistance to Augmentin (30μg), Ofloxacin (5μg), Gentamicin (10μg), Nalixidic acid (30μg), Nitrofuratoin (200μg), Cotrimoxazole (25μg), Amoxycillin (25μg), Tetracycline (25μg), while the strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated were highly susceptible to the aforementioned antibiotics except for tetracycline (100%). Of the Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most resistant to 25μg Cotrimoxazole (0mm), 5μg Cloxacillin (0mm), 5μg Erythromycin (0mm), 10μg Gentamicin (15mm), 30μg Augmentin (12mm), 10μg Streptomycin (15mm), 10μg Tetracycline (0mm), 10μg Chloramphenicol (15mm); followed by Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Also, Candida albicans 60% (6 male), 62.5% (10 female) and other Candida species 40% (4 male), 37.5% (6 female) were isolated and identified after carrying out a germ tube test. Gram negative organisms were found harboring efflux pump resistant system after the incorporation of an efflux inhibitor, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone into the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) medium.

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COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THREE DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR TYPHOID FEVER

July 28, 2016

Author: Ozor Patricia Ginika
Department: Applied Microbiology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Efficacy of widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever was compared with stool and blood cultures on patient that attended National Orthopedic Hospital Enugu within the months of January to June 2014. 120 (50 males, 70 females, 4 children and 116 adults) samples were tested with two different widal kits (cromatest and spine react) by slide and tube agglutination. 52 tested positive. Stool and blood samples were collected from the positive 52 widal test candidate. Stool was first inoculated into Selenite F and subcultured on Salmonella Shigella Agar (SSA) and Desoxycholate Citrate Agar (DCA) after overnight incubation at 370c. Blood culture was done using brain heart infusion broth and incubated at 370c for 24 hours. 36 (30%), and 16 (13.3%) were positives for stool and blood cultures respectively. Sensitivity of the three methods was compared. Widal test had sensitivity of 90%. Stool cultures had 83% and blood cultures had 44%. Specificity of the methods assessed showed that stool culture had 98% which is greater than widal test and blood culture with 80% and 97% thus justifying stool culture as the best method of diagnosis of typhoid fever. However, from widal test, gender and sex result revealed 48 cases in adults with greatest number occurring between 41-50 years and 4 cases in children which fell between 1-10 years. Females and males had 32 and 20 cases respectively with peak number which also occurred within the range of 41-50 years. In stool culture, 34 isolates were made from adults and 2 from children, 26 from females, 10 from males. Predominance was also observed in males, females and adults within the age range of 31 -40. Blood culture had 12 females, 4 males, 16 adults and none from children. Statistical significance (P<0.05) existed in gender in all the three methods (widal, stool, blood) used while none existed in sex analysis. The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis confirmed the presence of 16 Samonella typhi out of the 18 cultural and biochemically identified Salmonella typhi.

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EFFECT OF PRE-TREATMENT ON BiogaS PRODUCTION FROM Corn Stover in A Batch Bioreactor System

July 28, 2016

Author: Opurum Christian Chibuzor
Department: Applied Microbiology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

This study evaluated the impact of alkaline pretreatment of corn stover (corn cob and corn sheath) and nitrogen sources on biogas production and methane yield. Three NaOH doses: 2%, 4% and 6% were used to treat the substrates for 48hrs and the performance investigated. Laboratory scale 3L and scale-up 10L capacity bioreactors were used for batch system anaerobic digestion of the different substrates for a hydraulic retention time of 31days under ambient temperature conditions of 25- 35Oc.The result showed there were 36.40% (1.64dm3) and 19.84%(1.21dm3) increase in biogas production in 2% NaOH pretreated corn sheath (CS) and corn cob (CC). Remarkable inhibitory effects were recorded in 4% and 6 % pretreatments. Pretreatment with NaOH alone is not an efficient approach for enhanced anaerobic biogas production from corn stover. The cumulative biogas yields from untreated corn cob and corn sheath (control) were 1.02dm3 and 1.20dm3, and gas analysis showed the methane content was 61.80% and 59.01% respectively. The result of the proximate analysis of the substrates showed that the C: N ratios of corn cob, poultry dropping, soy bean cake and fish meal (81:1, 14:1, 9:1 and 4:1, respectively) was not ideal for optimized biogas production and therefore required pretreatment. The effect of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources (urea, soy bean cake, fish meal and NPK fertilizer) on biogas production and methane yield was studied. Different dose ratios, 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 were used for soy bean cake (SB) and fish meal (FM) while 65g/3g, 65g/6g and 65/9g substrate/nitrogen source were used for urea and NPK. Statistical analysis(T test) of the results showed a significant difference (p ≤5) in biogas production in the following tested parameters: CC/SB 1:1, CC/FM 1:1, CC/NPK(65g/9g), CS/SB 3:1, CS/FM 1:1, CS/Urea(65g/3g), CS/Urea(65g/6g) and CS/NPK(65g/6g) CS/Urea(65g/6g) and CS/NPK(65g/6g).The cumulative biogas yield and percentage methane content were 2.29dm3(62.77%), 2.07dm3(69%), 2.17dm3(73.10%), 2.86dm3(69.44%), 2.56dm3(72.08%), 3.29dm3(72.60%), 2.71dm3(70.00%) and 5.51dm3(73.46%), respectively. Studies on the effect of particle size of the substrate on biogas production revealed only 27.12% (1.29dm3) increase in biogas from corn cob of 2mm particle size. Co-digestion of the substrates with cow dung and poultry dropping at different dose ratios (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1) was investigated. Statistical study of the results showed significant different in biogas yield from the parameters: CC/CD 2:1, CS/CD 1:1 and CS/PD 1:1. The cumulative biogas yield and percentage methane content was 2.03dm3 (71%), 3.50dm3(65.50%) and 2.67dm3(74.08%), respectively. Computer aided regression analysis (SPSS) indicated that biogas production from corn stover can be predicted based on hydraulic retention time. The highest volume of biogas, 5.51 dm3 was observed in CS/NPK (65g/6g) with 359.84% increase in biogas yield and 73.46% methane content. However, in terms of sustainable biogas production, the test parameters, 3g/65g Urea to corn cob, CS/CD 1:1, CS/PD 1:1, CS/FM 2:1, 6g/ 65g Urea to corn sheath and 9g/65g Urea to corn sheath showed outstanding results and can be adopted for domestic biogas production. This research identified a number of pretreatment measures that can be adopted to optimize biogas production and methane yield from corn stover and generation of sludge which can be used in soil amendment for plant growth.

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BIODEGRADATION OF SURFACTANTS IN SOME LIQUID DETERGENTS (MARKETED IN ANAMBRA STATE)

July 28, 2016

Author: Okaa Anthony Ifeanyi
Department: Applied Microbiology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Biodegradabilities of surfactants in seven detergents namely Morning Fresh, Mama lemon, Newday Fresh, LB wash `N’ Wax, Classic Handwash Fresh, Lily Fresh and a Standard-Sodium Dodecylsulphate (SDS) were determined using the river water die-away method. The ease of degradation over a 28-day monitoring period followed the order- SDS (90%), Lily Fresh (85%), Newday fresh (77.50%), LB wash `N’ Wax (60%), Mama Lemon (57%), Classic Handwash (50.75%) and Morning Fresh (50%). Lily Fresh has a chemical oxygen demand (COD) value of 3900mg/L (highest) while Morning Fresh had the least with 1560 mg/L in the original liquid detergents. Newday Fresh recorded the highest nitrate concentration of 350mg/L while Mama Lemon recorded the lowest concentration of 150mg/L in the original liquid detergents. Lily Fresh had the highest sulphate concentration of 1500mg/L while Morning Fresh had the least with a sulphate concentration of 650mg/L in the original liquid detergents. There were marked decreases in chemical oxygen demand, sulphate and nitrate concentrations during the river water die-away tests of the liquid detergents. The initial (day 0) and final (28th day) chemical oxygen demand concentration of the samples were in the following order: LB Wash ‘N’ Wax (165mg/L
and 25mg/L), Classic handwash (200mg/L and 30mg/L), Newday Fresh (200mg/L and 30mg/L), Morning Fresh (140mg/L and 35mg/L), Sodium dodecyl sulphate (200mg/L and 35mg/L), Mama Lemon (150mg/L and 45mg/L) and Lily Fresh (250mg/L and 45mg/L). The initial and final days sulphate concentrations of the samples were as followed: LB Wash ‘N’ Wax (75mg/L
and 5mg/L), Morning Fresh (65mg/L and 6mg/L), Mama Lemon (84mg/L and 7.50mg/L) Classic handwash (95mg/L and 8mg/L), Sodium dodecyl sulphate (80mg/L and 9.50mg/L) Newday Fresh (120mg/L and 10mg/L) and Lily Fresh (150 mg/L and 10.50mg/L). The mean pH of the river water in the presence of the detergents over the 28-day period ranged from 6.2 to 7.8. The mean counts of detergent utilizing bacteria in the river water ranged from 3 x 104 cfu/ml to 1.04 x 106 cfu/ml, with a percentage range of 1.9 to 66.2. The total viable counts of the samples increased steadily during the river water die-away tests and recorded the highest counts on the 20th day in the following order: SDS (8.7 x 104cfu/ml), Classic handwash (9.0 x 104cfu/ml), LB Wash ‘N’ Wax (9.4 x 104cfu/ml), Mama Lemon (9.8 x 104cfu/ml), Morning Fresh (1.13 x 105cfu/ml), Newday Fresh (1.33 x 105cfu/ml) and Lily Fresh (1.65 x 105cfu/ml). The following
bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp, Citrobacter freundii, Flavobacterium sp, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella sp were found to effect the degradation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa predominating. There were positive correlations between the pH, nitrate, sulphate and COD values with their respective total viable counts of the samples during the biodegradation test. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the mean pH and nitrate values; mean pH and sulphate values; and, mean pH
and COD values of the samples respectively during the biodegradation test. With the exception of SDS, it was concluded that the detergent that supported the highest microbial growth was the most easily degraded and have provided an insight to the fate of these surfactant components in the aquatic environment.

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICACY OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM, GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM, AND CONVENTIONAL ANTIBIOTICS AGAINST BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE URINE OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN AWKA

July 28, 2016

Author: Oguejiofor Ann
Department: Applied Microbiology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Urinary tract infection is one of the commonest medical complications in pregnancy and there is increase in resistance of the urine pathogens to routinely used antibiotics. Comparative analysis of the extracts of Ocimum gratissimum,Gongronema latifolium and conventional antibiotics was done against different bacterial isolates from urine of pregnant women in Awka to evaluate their antibacterial effect. Three hundred urine samples were collected, analysed and cultured. Sixty three out of the three hundred samples were culture positive giving a prevalence of 21%.
Prevalence of bacteriuria, pyuria and nitrite among culture positive samples were 95%, 71.88% and 90.91% respectively. Five different organisms were isolated which are Escherichia coli 27(42.86%), Proteus mirabilis 14(22.22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 10(15.87%), Staphylococcus aureus 8(12.70%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4(6.35%). Susceptibility test of the isolates to nine different antibiotics was done using MIC, MBC and well-in agar method. The interaction of the plant extracts with conventional antibiotics was also done in vitro using agar overlay inoculum susceptibility disc method. Susceptibility tests of the isolates showed that the organisms were more susceptible to Cefuroxime (MIC = 0.009mg/ml) and more resistant to Augumentin (MIC >1.562mg/ml) and Amoxycillin (MIC >2.5mg/ml). Susceptibility test using well-in agar method showed that the methanolic extract of O. gratissimum gave higher inhibition zone diameter (11mm) more than the methanolic extract of G. latifolium (10mm), aqueous extracts of O. gratissimum (8mm) and aqueous extract of G. latifolium (7mm). The results showed that O. gratissimum had more antibacterial effect than G. latifolium and the methanolic extracts of the plants were more efficacious than the aqueous extracts. The interaction of the antibiotics and extracts showed good but varying in vitro activities against all the isolates tested. Ofloxacillin and Nitrofurantoin had the highest number of synergistic effects of the interactions (9) while Cefuroxime and Gentamycin had the highest number of antagonistic effects (8). The methanolic extracts of the plants showed synergism 22(61.11%) more than the aqueous extracts 14(38.89%) and the overall synergistic effect 36(20%) of the interaction was more than the antagonistic effect 24(13.3%).

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