Archive for the ‘Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences’ Category

The Legal Protection of Intellectual Property Rights in the Cyberspace: Nigeria in Perspective

October 19, 2016

Author: Nwogu Mary Imelda Obianuju
Department: Law
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Intellectual property is that category of property acquired through intellectual exertion and creativity. It is intangible in nature but subject of legal ownership and consequently attracts monopoly rights. These rights are protected and regulated by Intellectual Property Law. Intellectual Property Law is an area of law that has not yet been fully explored. This is because people know little about the law. The primary aim of Intellectual Property Law is to protect from exploitation the fruits of somebody’s labour. The importance of protecting Intellectual Property Rights in the cyberspace and Internet as it affects Nigeria cannot be overemphasized. The advent of computer networking of which Internet is the commonest example has so much increased the abuse of intellectual property rights in Nigeria and the entire world. Hence, this work studied this property, the law regulating its protection in the cyberspace as it relates to Nigeria and the possible role of effective laws for fighting intellectual property infringement in the cyberspace, with a view to finding solutions where there are shortfalls and filling the gaps where there are lacunae. This research reveals that intellectual property infringement is alarmingly on the increase both at the terrestrial environment and at the cyberspace; while the old forms of infringement are on the increase, new forms of infringements emerged and increase with the passage of time. The spate of abuse and infringement of these rights by Nigerians have been alarmingly on the increase in the Internet and the cyberspace, that it is thus worrisome, yet Nigerian relevant extant laws have not adequately protected the subject of study. This work was predicated on the review of related and available literature on the subject matter and Internet materials. It adopted a historical, descriptive, analytical and comparative approach in the examination of laws, judicial interpretations, comments, articles, existing texts and Internet materials. Nevertheless, for the effective protection of intellectual property in the cyberspace, there must be effective and adequate legislation at the states and international levels for the regulation of intellectual property rights.The Nigerian extant laws should be amended to include protection of Internet intellectual property rights and also new legislations made where necessary. There must also be individual efforts of right owners outside the law to protect their property. There must also be public enlightenment of the people on the subject. Right owners should be prepared always to fight infringements at all levels. Consequently, there will be reduction of piracy and increasing pace of development in Nigeria and beyond.

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EVALUATION OF EFFECTS OF BOILED FLUTED PUMPKIN (Telfairia occidentalis) SEEDS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE, ATHEROGENIC INDICES AND IMMUNOGLOBULIN PROFILE OF MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS

October 19, 2016

Author: Ude Tochukwu
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

The study is aimed at investigating the effect of Telfairia occidentalis seed diet on the serum lipid profile, immmunoglobulins and atherogenic indices of adult male albino wistar rats. This is an animal experimental control study. A total of (N) 40 male albino wistar rats weighing 120-136 g with the age range of 8 to 10 weeks were divided into four groups (n) of 10 rats each and designated A to D. The groups were given the dose of 0.0, 12.5, 37.5 and 75g of T. occidentalis per body weight respectively for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from the animals and subjected to various biochemical analysis. Serum concentrations of lipids and immune-globulins were estimated using the colorimetric and immune-turbidometric methods, respectively. Data were analysed using SPSS software application (version 16.0) and expressed as Mean ± Standard deviation. The results revealed significant decreases in total cholesterol (2.00±0.24 to 1.76±0.24), LDL-C (0.34±0.17 to 0.27±0.05), VLDL, (0.20±0.05 to 0.14±0.05), and NHDL-C (0.74±0.13 to 0.23±0.12) while significant increases were observed in IgG (1.08±0.35 to 2.10±0.43), HDL (1.26±0.12 to 1.53±0.14) and body weight (33.39±6.26 to 91.50±5.23) when compared with the control group (p0.05). The diet supplementation also led to significant decreases in atherogenic indices; CRR (1.53±0.15 to 1.14 ± 0.07), AC (0.71±0.40 to 0.14±0.07) and AIP (-0.05±0.06 to -0.31±0.12) when compared to the control group (p<0.05). These results indicate a likely potential dose dependent immunomodulative and cardio-protective mechanism of the seeds of T. occidentalis against the possible development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.

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TRACE ELEMENTS (ANTIOXIDANTS) AND MALARIA PARASITE DENSITY IN PREGNANT WOMEN ATTENDING CLINIC AT NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL NNEWI, SOUTH EAST NIGERIA

October 18, 2016

Author: Ozougwu Chukwuemeka Paul
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Malaria during pregnancy continues to be a major health problem in endemic countries with clinical consequences including death of both mother and child and attendant derangement in trace elements. This study is aimed at evaluating the relationship between trace element antioxidants and malaria density in pregnant women with malaria. The trace elements are selenium, copper, zinc, manganese and micronutrient iron. The patients are pregnant women attending ante natal clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Anambra, South East, Nigeria. The controls are pregnant women without malaria, non-pregnant women with malaria and non-pregnant women without malaria. The trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry while the malaria density was determined by counting the parasites against white cells. From results, copper showed a significant increase in pregnant women with malaria 13.63±6.22μmol/L compared to pregnant women without malaria 12.49±3.62μmol/L, non-pregnant women with malaria 7.29±2.83μmol/L and non-pregnant women without malaria 5.26±1.41μmol/L (F=102.6; p<0.05). Iron also showed
a significant increase in pregnant women with malaria 14.50±7.984μmol/L compared to pregnant women without malaria 14.30±8.32μmol/L, non-pregnant women with malaria 10.16±2.59μmol/L and non-pregnant women without malaria 10.17±5.09μmol/L (F =15.45; p0.05). Zinc showed a significant decrease in pregnant women with malaria 7.81±4.28μmol/L (p<0.05) compared to pregnant women without malaria 8.68±2.25μmol/L, non-pregnant women with malaria 9.10±3.36μmol/L and non-pregnant women without malaria 10.48±4.08μmol/L ((F=11.01; p<0.05). Also selenium showed a significant decrease in pregnant women with malaria 55.68±16.69μg/L (p<0.05) compared to non-pregnant women without malaria 64.83±13.27μg/L and a significant increase compared to pregnant women without malaria 32.94±14.41μg/L and non-pregnant women with malaria 36.44±9.59μg/L ((F=42.91; p<0.05). Selenium has a weak positive correlation with parasite density (r=0.27; p=0.004). Iron has a moderate positive correlation with parasite density (r=0.31; p=0.002).Copper has a moderate negative correlation with parasite density (r=0.32; p=0.003).Zinc has a strong negative correlation with parasite density (r=0.41; p=0.001). Manganese also has a strong negative correlation with parasite density (r= 0.48; p=0.001).

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EXAMINATION STRESS AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE OF FEMALE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN NNEWI, ANAMBRA STATE

October 18, 2016

Author: OSAKUE NOSAKHARE OMOYEMWEN
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Undergraduate Students are susceptible to academic stress which peaks around the examination period. This study sets out to observe the effects of examination stress on menstrual cycle characteristics, ovulation and ovarian reserve function. Thirty-two female students between ages of 18 and 26 years were recruited from Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology. They were further sub-grouped into pre and 2 cycles post examination, pre and 3 cycles post examination, pre and 6 cycles post examination and pre and 7 cycles post examination based on the number of menstrual cycles between time of collection of blood samples at pre- and post-examination. Blood samples obtained from the students during days 3 or 4 and 21of the menstrual cycle pre- and post-examination were used to determine serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Estradiol (E2), Progesterone, Cortisol and Glucose. Hormones were estimated using ELISA method while blood glucose was estimated using glucometer. Questionnaires were also administered to the students for assessment of menstrual cycle characteristics such as menstrual cycle length, menstrual blood flow-rate and number of days of blood flow. The result of the present study showed significant elevation in pre-examination mean serum concentrations of cortisol (15.3 ± 5.9μg/dl), and estradiol (85.9 ± 15.7pg/ml) but significant reduction in mean serum LH (7.9±2.7mIU/ml) and Progesterone (3.5± 1.5ng/ml) when compared with post-examination mean serum concentrations of cortisol (10.5 ± 5.1μg/dl), estradiol (77.2 ± 12.4pg/ml), LH (9.6 ± 3.8mIU/ml) and Progesterone (4.2 ± 2.6ng/ml) (p=<0.000, p=0.004, p=0.05). There were significant variations in serum concentrations of estradiol (F=3.304, p=0.005) and cortisol (F=2.447, p=0.029) between the four groups. The pre-examination menstrual cycle length was reduced in 3(9.4%) of the subjects, the menstrual blood flow rate was reduced in 7(21.9%) of the subjects and number of days of blood flow was increased in 1(3.1%) and reduced in 4(12.5%) of the subjects respectively (χ2=21.125, p=<0.000; χ2=10.125, p=0.001; χ2=37.938, p=0.001). These findings demonstrated that academic examination triggered stress, which altered ovulation in some of the subjects but had no effect on ovarian reserve function. Findings also demonstrated that academic examination stress alters menstrual cycle characteristics of some of the subjects. Generally, there was hormonal imbalance, which was as a result of stress and this imbalance normalized few menstrual cycles after examination.

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EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE II SUBJECTS

October 18, 2016

Author: OKUONGHAE EVBAGUEHITA OSAZEE PATRICK
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Diabetes mellitus subjects are susceptible to increased free radicals generation and thus need a competent antioxidant defence system to protect cellular components from free radical induced damages. This study was aimed at evaluating the level of antioxidant status in diabetes mellitus (DM) type II subjects visiting the outpatient diabetic clinic of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. A total of 160 subjects aged 53± 10 years, were recruited for this study. The test subjects consists 80 (Female: 43; Male: 37) already confirmed diabetes mellitus type II subjects, while the control subjects consists 80 (Female: 43; Male: 37) apparently healthy subjects. The test subjects were further sub-grouped into good, poor and very poorly controlled based on their glycaemic control using a cut-off of <7% for HbA1C. Eight millilitres of whole blood was collected from the participating subjects and aliquoted as follows: 1.5mls into fluoride oxalate bottle for glucose estimation (mg/dl), 1.5mls into tri-potassium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) bottle for glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (%) estimation and 5mls into plain bottle for the estimation of Uric acid (UA) (mg/dl), serum albumin (Alb) (g/dl), Total bilirubin (T.BIL) (mmol/l), Glutathione reductase (GR) (U/I) and Total antioxidant status (TAS) (mmol/l). Results from this study showed that the mean differences in RBG (196.44 ± 44.72), HbA1C (9.95 ± 1.75), UA (8.80 ± 2.64) and T.BIL (9.70 ± 3.48) were significantly higher in the test subjects compared to the control subjects RBG (107.01 ± 12.28), HbA1c (5.18 ± 1.04), UA (7.83 ± 2.44) and T.BIL (8.57 ± 2.59) (p< 0.05). The mean differences of GR (45.43 ± 19.68) and TAS (1.85 ± 1.00) were significantly lower in the test subjects compared to the control subjects GR (60.78 ± 15.06) and TAS (2.47 ± 1.95) (p 0.05). Out of the 80 test subjects only 3.75% had good glycaemic control, 13.75% had poor glycaemic control and 82.5% had very poor glycaemic control. There were positive correlations between RBG and Albumin (r= 0.484; p=0.000), and also between HbA1C and TAS (r= 0.330; p=0.003). There was negative correlation between RBG and GR (r= -0.227; p=0.043). This study concludes that there is antioxidant depletion in diabetes subjects. Also, from the results of this study, subjects with increased diabetic duration have poor diabetic management.

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