Archive for the ‘Faculty of Health Sciences & Technology’ Category

PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CRUDE ETHANOL EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII ON THE LIVER AND KIDNEY OF ALBINO RATS AGAINST INDUCED TOXICITY WITH ACETAMINOPHEN

October 13, 2016

Author:Okeke Fidelis Odira
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidative protective property of crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves on the liver and kidney of albino rats against induced toxicity with acetaminophen. A total number of 30 albino rats of the Wistar strain used were divided into five (5) groups of six animals each. Group A, served as normal control and received distilled water orally for 20 days. Group B received normal diet for 20 days, while Group C animals were administered with 200mg/kg body weight of the crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves once daily for 20 days. GroupD animals received 400mg/kg body weight of the crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves once daily for 20 days, while Group E received 600mg/kg body weight of the crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves once daily for 20 days. A single oral chronic dose of acetaminophen (2500mg/kg body weight) was administered to all the rats in groups B-E on the 21st day of the study after an overnight fast of 14hours to induce toxicity. The rats were sacrificed forty-eight hours post acetaminophen administration. Blood was collected into a sterile dry container, allowed to clot and centrifuged to get the serum from which the biochemical parameters for liver and kidney function tests were estimated. The activity levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined according to the modified methods of Tietz, (1996), while alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was determined according to the methods of Cheesbrough, (2000) and bilirubin according to the methods of Walters and Gerard as modified by Tietz, (1996). Serum creatinine level was determined by the methods of Tietz, (1986), while urea was determined using the diacetyl monoxime improved methods of Mohammed and Boyde, (1980). Before this study was carried out, ethical approval was sourced for and obtained from the ethical committee of the Faculty of Health Sciences and Technology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus. The results showed that there were significant increases in the mean serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, urea and creatinine in the study groups compared to the control group (P<0.5). There were also obvious lymphoplasmacytic cell infiltrates and fulminant necrosis in both the liver and kidney of the study groups compared to those of the control. However, pretreatment with graded oral doses (200, 400 and 600mg/kg/body weight) of the crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves for twenty days prior to acetaminophen administration resulted in a significant decrease in the mean serum concentrations of these biochemical parameters to values near those of the control and the amelioration of the observable histopathological changes, indicating that crude ethanol extract of Murraya koenigii leaves may enhance recuperation of hepatic and renal cells from acetaminophen-induced damage in acetaminophen intoxicated rats.

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PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM IN POULTRY PRODUCTS FROM ABUJA METROPOLIS.

October 13, 2016

Author: Okeke Chinedu
Department:Medical Laboratory
Affiliation:Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.

Salmonella typhimurium is one of the species of Salmonella found in poultry and poultry products. Infection with Salmonella typhimurium is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in poultry. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella typimurium in poultries in Abuja metropolis. Four hundred and eighty ( 480) samples of poultry products comprising 48 samples of chicken droppings, eggs, feed and intestinal swabs respectively were collected from 10 different farms. Questionnaires were also administered on farm workers to assess the level of hygienic practices in these poultry farms. The samples were culture on Deoxycholate citrate agar (DCA) and isolates were identified biochemically, serologically and by molecular methods using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Eighteen (3.75%) out of the 480 samples yielded Salmonellatyphimurrium. Only 3 farms showed the presence of Salmonellatyphimurium; farm 1 with 6 samples positive (1.25%); farm 2 with 5 positive x samples (1.04%) and farm 5 with 7 positive samples (1.46%). Salmonella typhimurium were isolated only from chicken droppings 15(12.5%) and from intestinal swabs 3 (2.5%). Respondents report showed that 14% of the farms cleaned their farms of droppings weekly while 86% did monthly. The presence of Salmonella typhimurium in these poultry farms poses a risk to the birds as well as to public health and so the need to improve hygiene and sanitary standards in poultry farms is therefore recommended.

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IN VITRO EVALUATUION OF THE ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF COMBINATION OF CLOTRIMAZOLE AND SALICYLIC ACID AGAINST Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger

October 13, 2016

Author: Nworah Amaka Roseline
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Candida albicans is an oval yeast that produces a pseudomycelium both in tissue and exudates. It is a normal flora of mucous membrane in the respiratory, gastrointestinal and female genital tracts. The in vitro interaction between clotrimazole and salicylic acid against clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger was investigated using two different methods: The checkerboard method and the time kill assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the individual agents was determined using the agar diffusion techniques. The values of the MIC were found to range from 3.125μg/ml to 50μg/ml for clotrimazole and 1.56mg/ml to 25mg/ml for salicylic acid against the clinical isolates of Candida albicans and from 25μg/ml to 50μg/ml for clotrimazole and 12.5mg/ml to 25mg/ml for salicylic acid against Aspergillus niger. The results of the interaction studies were found to be method dependent. There was a good agreement between the checkerboard method and time kill assay both of which indicated a synergistic interaction. Out of the 72 varied combination of the two agents, 61.1% (44 of 72) of the interaction were synergitic ; 29.2% (21 of 72) were indifference and 9.7% (7 of 72) were antagonist for isolates of Candida albicans. For Aspergillus niger, out of the 27 varied combination, 59.3% ( 16 of 27) were synergistic and 40.7% (11 of 27) were indifference while antagonist effect were not observed. The time kill assay also gave a synergistic effect when the two agents were combined that is the killing effects started from 0min down to the 8th h. The outcome of this study is significant in considering combination therapies involving clotrimazole and salicylic acid in the treatment of infections of Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TWO PLANTS EXTRACTS (GARCINIA KOLA SEED AND ROOT OF CARICA PAPAYA) AGAINST METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS (MRSA)

October 13, 2016

Author: Ididiegwu Victoria Nkechinyere
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

The problem of antibacterial resistance to commonly used antibiotics coupled with the emergence of new and re-emerging diseases has led to a search for newer and alternative compounds for the treatment of drug-resistant infections. Thirty isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were subjected to three methods of identifying methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) namely Oxacillin disk, Latex agglutination and PCR. Using PCR as the gold standard, fifteen of the Staphylococcus aureus were identified as MRSA. The bioactive compound of Garcinia kola seed (Gutterfera) and Carica papaya root (pawpaw) powder were extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analysis showed that the extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and phenol. Saponins and flavonoids were not present in Carica papaya root. Extracts of Garcina kola seed and Carica papaya root were evaluated for the activity against MRSA. Twelve of the fifteen PCR confirmed MRSA were used to determine susceptibility to the plant extract using disk diffusion method. The Carica papaya root extract did not show any activity on MRSA isolate. The percentage of sensitivity and specificity of disk diffusion was 93.4% and 100%, and latex agglutination was 100% respectively. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and latex agglutination are recommended for identification of MRSA. Comparably latex test assay is a rapid test with high sensitivity, specificity, economical and more accessible. The result of the study also support the traditional application of Garcinia kola seed and suggests that the plant extract possess compounds with antibacterial properties that can be used as antibacterial agents in novel drugs for the treatment of infections associated with MRSA.

SERUM CORTISOL, PROGESTERONE AND TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT STATUS OF STUDENTS PRE- AND POSTEXAMINATION

October 11, 2016

Author: Awalu Chimezie Joseph
Department: Medical Laboratory
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Stress is defined as a mental or emotional strain resulting from very demanding circumstances. In recent years, traumatic episode and poor results following school examination have made stress an issue of major concern in academics. This study aimed to investigate examination induced stress among apparently healthy University students in relation to some biochemical parameters and antioxidants status pre- and post-examination. This is a case controlled study involving 40 examinees as test group and 40 non-examinees as control group. Serum concentrations of cortisol and progesterone were estimated by ELISA method, and total antioxidants status (TAS) was quantified by colorimetric method. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS software application (version 16.0) and the results expressed as mean ± standard deviation. The results of the pre and post examination showed a significant decrease in cortisol (from 34.84±8.50 to 21.18±14.53) while progesterone levels significantly increased from 0.42±0.32 to 0.92±0.96 (p 0.05). The mean serum cortisol in subjects with outstanding academic activity was not statistically significant when compared to subjects without outstanding academic activity (p>0.05). In conclusion, the differences in the biochemical parameters observed in this study pre and post examination suggest that examination has the tendency to induce stress which could culminate to oxidative damage in chronic cases.

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