Archive for the ‘Faculty of Medical Sciences’ Category

EVALUATION OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE, HIGH SENSITIVITY C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (hs-CRP) AND SEX HORMONE BINDING GLOBULIN (SHBG) IN PREECLAMPTIC PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY HEALTH INSTITUTION

January 9, 2017

Author: Udo John Ndubuisi
Department: Chemical Pathology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy specific condition of unknown cause that increases maternal and infant mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum lipid profile, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in preeclampsia. During their third trimester (mean gestational age 33weeks), 35 Pre-eclamptic women (mean age 30.91 ± 5.92), 35 non pre-eclamptic women (mean age 28.89 ± 4.28) and 23 non-pregnant women (mean age 30.48 ± 7.05) as a second control group underwent basic biochemical analysis of lipid profile (LDL-C, TG, TC and HDL-C), serum hs-CRP and SHBG. Results of the clinical characteristics of the three groups showed that the pre-eclamptic group had a significantly higher BMI, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) while the mean arterial blood pressure was also statistically significantly increased within the three groups (p< 0.001). Biochemical analysis showed that Pre-eclamptic women had a significantly lower mean serum SHBG level compared to the non pre-eclamptic group (P ═ 0.038). Group with pre-eclampsia showed a significant lower mean serum HDLC level compared with non pre-eclamptic group (1.10 ± 0.12mmol/L vs 1.26 ± 0.15mmol/L; P < 0.001), the atherogenic index of plasma was also statistically significantly increased among the three groups (p < 0.001). There was a significant increase in mean serum hs-CRP in pre-eclampsia when compared with the non pre-eclamptic women (8.57 ± 2.68mg/L vs 6.46 ± 2.45mg/L; P ═ 0.001). Also there was a higher mean serum triglyceride level in pre-eclampsia when compared to the non pre-eclamptic group (P < 0.001). Moreover, there was and a higher serum total cholesterol value (P < 0.001). However there was no statistically significant difference in the LDL-C levels (P ═ 0.492) between the group of pre-eclamptic women and the non pre-eclamptic women. But when comparing the three groups, there was a statistically significant difference in all the biochemical parameters evaluated apart from the LDL-C levels which was statistically similar in the three groups (P ═ 0.235). The results of this study indicate evidence of possible deranged lipid metabolism, an increased risk for CVD and generalized inflammation marked by an increase in mean serum hs-CRP levels and reduced SHBG levels in pregnancy.

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EVALUATION OF SERUM MINERALS, URIC ACID, CREATININE, ASPARTATE AND ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE IN PREECLAMPTIC AND NON PRE-ECLAMPTIC WOMEN IN NNEWI, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

January 9, 2017

Author: Onyegbule Onyema Athanatius
Department: Chemical Pathology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Preeclampsia with its complications remains major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Despite numerous studies, the exact etiology of pre-eclampsia has not been fully elucidated. Some recent studies have noted that changes in the levels of serum minerals can have adverse effect in human and animal pregnancy. Serum levels of calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc, uric acid and creatinine were measured in 54 women with pre eclampsia of pregnancy, and in 48 healthy normotensive pregnant women with similar maternal and gestational ages as control group. Data on body mass index, maternal ages, parity, were collected and compared between the two groups. The data was coded, computed and analyzed using SPSS version 17. Student’s t-test, Analysis of variants (ANOVA, Pearson moment product correlation and Chi square were used where appropriate. A P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. The mean systolic blood pressure for patients who had no preeclampsia, and patients who had pre-eclampsia were 113.33 ±19.17 versus 174.63 ± 27.45 while their diastolic blood pressure were 71.67 ± 9.07 versus 111.48 ± 13.65 with a mean arterial pressure of 85.56 ±9.04 and 132.53 ±15.65 respectively. The mean systolic, diastolic and arterial blood pressures were significantly higher in pre-eclamptics compared to non preeclamptic women. The mean arterial blood pressure for pre-eclamptics and non preeclamptics were 132.53 ± 15.65 and 85.56 ± 9.03 respectively. The levels of the serum minerals were significantly higher in non pre-eclamptics compared to pre-eclamptics. Copper: 16.62 ± 3.17 versus 8.14±1.80 (P<0.001), Zinc: 12.60 ±1.83 versus 8.27± 0.60, Calcium: 9.17 ± 0.58 versus 7.48 ± 0.74, (P<0.001), Magnesium: 13.19 ± 9.8 versus 9.81 ± 0.70 (P<0.001) Enzyme activities were significantly higher in pre-eclamptic women than in non pre-eclamptics women: Aspartate transaminase: 25.44 ± 3.00 vs 12.60 ± 3.06 versus (P<0.001), Alanine transminase: 28.78 ± 2.25 versus 13.67 ± 4.18 (P<0.001). Creatinine and uric acid concentrations were also significantly higher in pre-eclamptics than in non preclamptics; Creatinine: 137.43 ±27.81 versus 81.54 ±7.27 (P<0.001), Uric acid 445.65 ± 35.22 versus 246.98 ± 61.37, (P<0.001).The findings of this study showed that levels of serum minerals were significantly reduced in pre-eclamptic women when compared to the normotensive group. Dietary supplementation with these minerals may help to prevent preeclampsia, at least in susceptible women.

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Trace Elements Content of Fish species and water from lakes And Fish pond located in South Eastern Nigeria

January 9, 2017

Author: Olisah Chinedu Micheal
Department: Chemical Pathology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

The concentration of some toxic elements (Mercury, Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic) and some essential elements (Cobalt, Copper, Chromium; Manganese, Selenium and Zinc) in fish obtained from Oguta, Agulu lakes and Fish pond in South Eastern Nigeria were determined using rapid, highly sensitive accurate method. A stepwise digestion procedure using optima Fisher concentrated nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide was used for complete oxidation of organic tissue. The concentrations of the various elements were measured using Varian AA240 Atomic Absorption mass spectrophotometer. A total of 56 fish samples covering three different species of tilapia;Tilapiazilli, Cat fish; Clariasgariepinus and Synodontusfilamentosis were analysed for their elemental contents.Results of the study indicate low levels of exposure to Chromium,Cobalt,Copper, Manganese,Selenium and Zinc while the levels of toxic elements Lead, Mecury, Cadmium and Arsenic were within maximum acceptable limits in fish pond but above maximum acceptable limits in lakes especially from Oguta lakes. The consumption of these species of fish maypose a significant health risk to the individuals and to a greater extent the general population.

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EFFECT OF MODERATE -TO- VIGOROUS INTENSITY PHYSICAL EXERCISE ON FEMALE SEX HORMONES AND SOME MINERALS IN PREMENOPAUSAL FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN ANAMBRA STATE

November 7, 2016

Author: Atuegbu Chidiadi Maryann
Department: Chemical Pathology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

This study evaluated the effect of one month moderate -to-vigorous intensity physical exercise on the ovarian reserve status, ovulatory status and the serum levels of some minerals in premenopausal female university students. Thirty female subjects aged 19-25 years participated in this study and were divided into 2 groups, 15 subjects that did exercise for 1 month (exercise group) and 15 controls that did not do any form of exercise (non-exercise group). Before-exercise blood samples were collected from the two groups on day 3 and day 21 of the menstrual cycle. The exercise group started exercise on day 1 of the next menstrual cycle and did it for one month. After-exercise blood samples were collected from the two groups on day 3 and day 21 of the next menstrual cycle. The concentrations of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Progesterone (Prog.) and Estrogen (E2) were measured using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method. The ovarian reserve status was evaluated based on FSH, E2 and LH values of day 3 of menstrual cycle while the ovulatory status was evaluated based on Progesterone value of day 21 of the menstrual cycle. There were no significant differences in the mean age and BMI of exercise group and non-exercise group (21.20±1.7 and 21.33±1.68 years) and (23.27±0.89 and 22.84±1.31kg/m2)respectively. There was significant reduction in weight and BMI of the exercise group compared with non-exercise group after one month of exercise. There was also significant reduction in after-exercise weight and therefore BMI of the exercise group compared with their before-exercise weight and BMI. There were no significant differences in the before-exercise levels of day 3 Estrogen, FSH, LH and day 21 progesterone of the exercise group compared with non-exercise group. After 1 month of exercise, there were significant differences between the before-exercise and after-exercise levels of day 3 estrogen, FSH, LH and day 21 progesterone of the exercise group (P<0.05). Between the exercise and the non-exercise groups, there were significant differences in the after exercise levels of day 3 Estrogen, FSH, LH and day 21 Progesterone (P<0.05) after one month exercise by the exercise group. After one month of exercise, there were significant reduction between the before-exercise and after-exercise values of day 3 and day 21 levels of Zinc , Copper and Iron in the exercise group (P<0.05).Also there were significant reduction in after-exercise levels of these minerals between the two groups (P<0.05).The hormonal pattern shows that moderate-to-vigorous exercise may increase the responsiveness and sensitivity of the follicle to FSH and LH with attendant ovulation which may not negatively affect ovarian reserve but may improve ovulatory status thereby enhancing fertility in young females. Moderate-to-vigorous exercise also causes changes in some minerals with significant reduction in serum iron, copper and zinc which may negatively affect fertility.

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The Effects of Metoclopramide and Bromocriptine on Immune – related Leucocyte of Dogs

March 10, 2016

Author: OBINWOGU DONATUS LOTANNA

Department: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka

The relationship between the prolactin hormone and immunity has been variously established. In the present study, Metopclopramide and Bromocriptine were used to induce hyperprolactinaemia and hypo
prolactinaemia, respectively, to evaluate the effects on immune related leucocytes of dogs. Thirty male Mongrel dogs weighing between 5kg and 10kg were used for the study. The experiment lasted for 28 days. The dogs were acclimatized for the first 14 days after which metopclopramide and bromocriptine were administered. The animals were split into ten dogs per group. Group 1 served as the control and was given distilled water. Group 2 was administered 20mg metoclopramide injection intramuscularly per body weight and served as the hyper prolactinaemic group. Group 3 was administered with an oral daily dose of 5mg of bromocriptine per body weight which served as hypopolactinaemic group. The result of the study showed that there was a statistically significant increase in prolactin levels (10.66 ± 0.92ng/ml) of the hyper prolactinaemic group compare d to the control group (9.95 ± 0.56) (P < 0.05) . Also, the mean total white
blood cell count of the hyperprolactinaemic group (524.00 ± 203.63) showed a statistically significant
difference (P=0.02) when compared to the control (345 ± 82.41). Comparison between the total white blood cell count of the hyperprolactinaemic group (524.00 ± 203.63) and the hypoprolactinaemic group (321.80 ±
124.78) also showed a statistical significance (P=0.01). The finding of this study suggests that
hyperprolactinaemi a might be associated with an increase in leucocyte profile.

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