Archive for the ‘Faculty of Social Sciences’ Category

PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS ON UNWANTED PREGNANCY AND ABORTION IN ABIA STATE: A STUDY OF ABA TOWN

February 10, 2017

Author: Ukaumunna Ezemidi Favour
Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

This study was designed to examine the public perceptions on unwanted pregnancy and abortion in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, four hypotheses derived from the research questions were formulated. A sample size of 395 was drawn from the three Local Government Areas (Osisoma, Aba North and Aba South) in Aba town through probability (simple random) and non-probability (purposive) sampling techniques. The study utilized both quantitative and qualitative instruments in the collection of relevant data from the respondents. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. The analysis of data revealed the following findings; that there is no relationship between one’s religious affiliation and one’s perception concerning unwanted pregnancy and abortion in Aba town; that there is a relationship between the level sex education and rate of unwanted pregnancy and abortion in Aba town; that there is a relationship between the services of abortion givers and health problem in Aba town; that there is a relationship between perceived socioeconomic consequences and the reason for pregnancy to be unwanted. Based on these findings, it was recommended that in order to curb the increase in unwanted pregnancy and abortion, there should be sex education in the families, churches and schools; family planning devices and contraceptive materials should be available; government under the Ministry of Youth Development should provide a camp for victims of unwanted pregnancy whose parents and guardians refuse to accommodate.

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REWARD SYSTEMS AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF JUHEL NIGERIA LIMITED AND FIRST BANK NIGERIA

February 10, 2017

Author: Udeobasi Obianuju Chinyelu
Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Organizations in the world over rely on reward systems as a means of motivating employees. The different levels of employee performance can be attributed to different reward systems. It is therefore imperative to seek to understand what types of reward systems motivate different employees. However, there exists a lack of understanding on how to motivate employees, making most of the reward systems not having a direct bearing on employee performance. To create an optimal reward system, we need a better understanding of what really motivates and what does not because motivating employees is the cornerstone of any successful organization. This study sets out to address the important role of reward systems in improving employee performance in the private sector. The study investigates two private sector organizations namely JUHEL Pharmaceuticals a small medium enterprise and First Bank Limited a multinational company. The primary focus is on how to motivate employees via a network of rewards in order to improve employee performance. A cross sectional survey research design was adopted for the study. A total of 485 respondents were randomly drawn from the organizations of study. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain quantitative data while key informant interview guide was used to elicit qualitative data from interviewees. Quantitative data was analyzed using the statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software while qualitative data was analysed using manual content analysis. Results were presented and the stated hypotheses were tested using frequency tables, percentages, bar charts, chi- square (X²) statistics and multiple regression. Findings show that rewards do have a very strong motivational potential to influence employees willingness to work harder especially extrinsic reward more precisely pay since it appears to motivate the Nigerian worker better. However the major area of difference between the two organizations is, while First Bank Nigeria makes use of written reward program with rules and guide lines on how employees can achieve their goals and that of the organization, in JUHEL Nigeria Limited there is absence of written document on how to implement rewards. This consequently affects the total commitment to work and ultimately, performance. It was recommended that employers should pay salaries and wages that are industry competitive, improve on job security, recognize employees’ achievements, educate, train and develop employees’ skills, adopt the use of written reward program with rules and guide lines on how employees can achieve their goals and implement the reward package that will balance between extrinsic and intrinsic needs of the employees.

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MANPOWER TRAINING AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC SECTOR EMPLOYEES: A STUDY OF POWER HOLDING COMPANY OF NIGERIA (PHCN), ENUGU STATE

February 7, 2017

Author: Okoye Christian Chizoba
Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

This study investigated manpower training and the development of public sector employees in Enugu State. The study is based on a survey of 416 respondents selected through the multi-stage sampling technique and 40 participants from Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guide. The instruments used for data collection comprise structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion Guide. SPSS was used for accurate analysis of data collected from the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics like simple percentages, frequency tables and graphic illustrations such as bar charts and pie charts were used in analyzing the research questions. All the hypotheses were tested using chi-square inferential statistics (X2). On the other hand, qualitative data generated through focus group discussions were analyzed. The researcher typically used extensive field notes which were subsequently coded and analyzed in a variety of ways. The findings show that the quality of manpower training enhances employees’ performance, and that level of funding has not influenced manpower training in public sector. However, it was found that on-the-job-training is the main method of training available to public sector employees in PHCN in Enugu State. Again, this study found that there are different criteria for selecting staff for training activities in the organization. Given the findings, it was recommended that the management of PHCN should improve staff participation in training and development activities. There is the need for the management of PHCN to institute measures to ensure that staff benefit from its training and development policy.

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PERCEPTIONS OF THE USE OF IN VITRO FERTILISATION (IVF) IN THE TREATMENT OF INFERTILITY AMONG MARRIED COUPLES IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

February 7, 2017

Author: Okafor Nneka Ihuoma
Department: Sociology/Anthropology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

Although there is a high rate of infertility in Nigeria, solution to the problem is adversely affected by poor perception of the phenomenon. There are many treatment options for infertility such as the traditional method, faith based solution, and In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). However, the use of IVF for the treatment of infertility in Anambra state is low. This is because of some socio-economic and cultural barriers affecting the use of IVF in the treatment of infertility in the state. Consequently, the need for bio technology for the treatment of infertility is often unmet. There is therefore a need to understand the perceptions of In Vitro Fertilization in the treatment of infertility amongst married couples in Anambra State, Nigeria. The study was based on cross sectional study design using a sample size of 589 married couples aged 18 years and above who were recruited using the multi-stage sampling technique made up of cluster, simple random sampling and systematic, sampling techniques. Data were collected using the questionnaire and the Key Informant Interview (KII) Guide. Quantitative data obtained was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) presented and interpreted using descriptive statistical analysis such as simple percentages, frequency distribution tables and graphical illustrations. The KII interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic content analysis. The findings show that majority of the respondents perceive infertility to be as a result of destiny/supernatural powers. There are also poor perceptions and lack of awareness of IVF as treatment method of infertility in Anambra state. Even those who are aware of IVF tend to lack adequate knowledge of it. The use of IVF for the treatment of infertility is encumbered with social, economic and cultural, factors in Anambra state. Cultural belief and practices, religious affiliation, duration of marriage, income, and cost of IVF treatment are some of the strong determinants for the use of IVF services. The study also found that perception of infertility affects every aspect of a couple’s wellbeing and marital satisfaction. Furthermore, successful IVF treatment was found to offer hope and enhance marital satisfaction among married couples in Anambra state. Based on the findings, it was recommended that reproductive health education programmes and awareness creation targeting the misconceptions about IVF as well as reduction of the cost of IVF treatment can enhance and improve the use of IVF in Anambra State.

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PSYCHOLOGICAL HARDINESS AND PERCEIVED SOCIAL SUPPORT AS PREDICTORS OF SOMATIZATION AMONG HEALTH WORKERS

February 6, 2017

Author: Simon Maxwell Tom
Department: Psychology
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

This study investigated whether psychological hardiness and perceived social support predicts somatization. A total number of 363 health workers consisting of 116 males and 247 females with the age range of 24 to 60 years and a mean age of 37 years and standard deviation of 9.78, selected from Anambra state university teaching hospital AmakuAkwa, Beacon Hospital Awka, Okoye Specialist Hospital Awka, Nnamdi Azikiwe Teaching hospital Nnewi and Regina Cealis Hospital and material Awka, through convenience sampling technique. The first instrument used in this study is Connor Davidson resilient scale developed by Connor and Davidson (2003) validated by Campbell Cohen & Stein (2006). The second instrument used in this study is a multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support. It was developed by Zimet, Dehilum and Farley (1988) and validated by Barkoff, workman & Powell (1990). The third instrument was adopted from symptoms distress check list “SCL 90”. It was developed for use in Nigeria by Omoluabi (1996). The study employed linear regression analysis as the appropriate statistical tool. Two hypothesis were tested at P<.05 level of significance. The first hypothesis which stated that there will be a significant relationship between psychological hardiness and somatization among health workers was accepted while the second hypothesis which stated that there will be a significant relationship between perceived social support and somatization among health workers was rejected. The result of the study showed that psychological hardiness significantly predicts somatization while perceived social support did not significantly predict somatization. The researcher therefore recommended that the Chief Medical Directors of different hospitals should increase the social support offered to health workers for their psychological wellbeing and as preventive measure against somatization.

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