Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION IN UMUAHIA, NIGERIA

September 15, 2016

Author: Ekpo Evelyn
Department: Building
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

The concept of sustainable construction is used as a basis for enhancing understanding of sustainable construction. Evaluation of Environmental
Policies and Programmes for Sustainable Construction covers the following; concept of sustainable construction, impact of construction activities on the
environment such as; deforestation, pollution, climate change, erosion etc. The aim of this research is to assess the environmental policies and programmes that will help in improving sustainable construction. To achieve this aim, an in-depth literature study and empirical research was undertaken. Here, a survey research method which comprises the used of both the primary and secondary data. Self- administered questionnaires were completed by 119 respondents involved in construction in Umuahia. It was found that political instability and violence can affect the built environment,
also that sustainable construction policy has not been implemented in Nigeria and also that most people involved in construction are not familiar
with the environmental policies and laws in their States. The research therefore concluded with the following recommendations; that environmental policies and laws should be fully implemented in various states, environmental friendly construction materials should be used in construction. The building and construction sector is of key important to the development and well-being of its population. Nigeria can fulfill the demand for a built environment that meets the needs of the people through the application of sustainable construction concepts.

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KINETIC AND OPTIMIZATION STUDIES ON THE ADSORPTION OF DYES ONTO ACTIVATED CLAYS

May 26, 2015

AUTHOR: OBIEJESI CALISTA CHIMELOGO

DEPARTMENT: CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

In this study, the adsorption of Vat yellow and Orange G dyes onto activated clays was investigated. The activated clays were prepared from Uli and Akwuke clays using H2SO4 and NaOH as activating agents leading to the production of four adsorbents. The surface characterization of the clays was performed using FTIR, AAS, XRD, XRF and SEM analyses. Some physico-chemical properties, such as surface area, bulk density, pH and moisture content, of the activated clays were also determined. The effect of particle size, dosage, pH, contact time, temperature and initial dye concentration was studied. It was observed that decrease in adsorbent particle size, increase in adsorbent dosage, decrease in pH, initial dye concentration, temperature and increase in contact time increased the adsorption capacity. Equilibrium modelling of the processes reveals that both Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms fitted the adsorption data properly. The maximum adsorption capacity (44.64mg/g) of orange G was obtained with the Akwuke clay activated with NaOH(AkwukeNaOH) at 303K, while that of vat yellow (11.47mg/g) was obtained with Akwuke clay activated with H2SO4(Akwuke H2SO4) at 303K. Seven kinetic models were also tested to investigate the adsorption mechanism. It was shown that the adsorption of both vat yellow and orange G dyes on the adsorbents could be best described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model. The percentage of the dyes removed was successfully optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The result shows that the optimum condition for the adsorption of vat yellow onto the four adsorbents and orange G onto AkwukeH2SO4 and AkwukeNaOH was temperature of 308K, contact time of 45minutes, dosage of 1.0g and pH of 1.38, while optimum condition of orange G adsorption onto UliH2SO4 and UliNaOH was temperature of 308K, contact time of 45minutes, dosage of 1.0g and pH of 10.82. This resulted to76.53% adsorption of Orange G onto AkwukeNaOH, 77.22% adsorption of Orange G onto AkwukeH2SO4, 80.29% adsorption of orange G onto UliH2SO4, 83.55% adsorption of Orange G onto UliNaOH, 76.76% adsorption of vat yellow onto Akwuke H2SO4, 73.21% adsorption of vat yellow onto AkwukeNaOH, 76.27% adsorption of vat yellow onto UliNaOH and 78.69% adsorption of vat yellow onto UliH2SO4. The proposed quadratic model of central composite design (CCD) fitted very well to the experimental data that it could be used to navigate the design space according to ANOVA results.

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DETERMINATION OF HOUSEHOLD SOLID WASTE GENERATION PROFILE OF AWKA AND USE OF COMPOSTING FOR ITS MANAGEMENT

May 18, 2015

AUTHOR: NNABUGWU STELLA CHIDIMMA

DEPARTMENT: APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY AND BREWING

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

The determination of household solid waste generation profile of Awka and use of composting to manage the wastes was carried out. According to income level / home criteria, the study area was divided into three distinct levels of standard of living called high income, middle income and low income earners. Wastes from 120 households were weighed daily and the total wastes generated by each household were collected seven days a week, for a period of four weeks. Hand sorting was used for classifying the collected wastes into the following categories: fermentable/putrescible, paper, textiles, plastics, leather/rubber, metal, glass/ceramic and miscellaneous (wastes that do not fit into any of the above categories). Composting of the organic fractions of the wastes was carried out using the Indore heap method of composting. The wastes were layered alternately in two Piles (Piles A and B). Wastes in Pile A were amended with poultry manure, while Pile B contained organic wastes only. The process was monitored by evaluating physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. Results indicated that the amount of wastes generated increased with the standard of living and family size. The daily waste generation rate ranged from 0.36 to 0.43 kg/person/day, while the average rate was 0.40 kg/person/day for the three income levels. Regardless of the standard of living, fermentable/putrescible components represent the largest proportion (45.89%) of the wastes generated followed by plastics (17.61%) and paper (10.07%). The temperature of the composting substrates ranged from 290C to 460C, the pH was between 5.1 to 8.44, while the moisture content ranged from 27% to 52.5%. Bacterial counts increased from 1.34 x 107 to 2.41 x 109 cfu/g while the fungal counts were between 1.7 x 103 to 3.9 x 105 cfu/g. The bacteria isolated include Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Beijerinckia, Methylomonas, Klebsiella, Proteus and Escherichia species. The fungal isolates include Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus glaucus, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Trichoderma, Absidia, Rhizomucor, Verticillium, Fusarium, Sepedonium, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces specie. The trends in microbial succession in the composting wastes in Piles A and B were similar. The poultry manure used as supplement (in Pile A) introduced more microbes into the compost, lowered the C/N ratio, induced the early maturity of the compost and contributed to the nutritional content of the Pile A compost at the end of the composting process.

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JAGUA NANA’S CHILDREN: THE IMAGE OF THE PROSTITUTE IN POST COLONIAL AFRICAN LITERATURE

July 4, 2014

AUTHOR: NWAHUNANYA CHINYERE

FROM IN THE PERSPECTIVES OF LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE: ESSAYS IN HONOUR OF R.U. UZOEZIE

EDITED BY: NGOZI EZENWA-OHAETO and IFEYINWA J. OGBAZI

This paper, while aligning with the view that prostitution is one of the oldest professions, examines the phenomenon of prostitution as a social fact in post-colonial African society, and the various ramifications of the portraiture of the prostitute in post -colonial African literature, especially male-authored ones. After examining the attitudes to prostitutes and prostitution in ancient Greece, Victorian England and some contemporary societies, the paper x -rays the African novelist’s diagnosis of the causes of prostitution, the social problems associated with it, and the “values” of prostitution. Adopting feminist theory as the implied theoretical framework which need not be reexamined here, the paper asks and tries to answer the larger question: Why do African writers find the prostitute attractive as a choice image in their works? The paper ends by positing that evidence from the works studied suggests that in spite of the negative portraiture of the prostitute by writers, the prostitute is a largely misunderstood and misrepresented person; not only in literatures from other parts of the world where the image of the prostitute first began to appear. It is prominently so also in postcolonial African literature. Therefore, the prostitute’s position demands a more sympathetic appraisal and understanding, especially in relation to the social structures which created her in the first place and still sustain her. The point is also made that although the female prostitute is usually stigmatized while their male clients are often covered up in most patriarchal societies, the men who are served by female prostitutes are as “guilty” as the females for supporting and sustaining an odious institution, since it takes patronage for prostitution to fiourish. It is only when we realize this that the problems associated with prostitution in African and other societies can be properly addressed.

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HISTORICAL INSIGHTS INTO EXTERNAL DEBT BURDEN IN AFRICA: THE CASE OF NIGERIA AND TANZANIA

July 2, 2014

AUTHOR(S): CLEMENT NWAKOBY and DR. ABEL E. EZEOHA

FROM AFRICAN BANKING AND FINANCE REVIEW VOL. 1 NO.2 APRIL 2011

PUBLISHED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF BANKING AND FINANCE, NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA.

This paper takes a historically comparative look into the external debt situation in sub-Saharan Africa. It makes a careful selection of the cases of Nigeria and Tanzania. The choice of the countries represents two extreme ideologies of  the leaders of Africa immediately after independence in the 1960s – the liberal disposition of Nigeria and the conservative approach shown by Tanzania. How did these early ideologies impact on the external debt burdens of the respective SubSaharan African countries that adopted them? This is a question pried into in this paper, The historical intent of this paper is designed to correct the mistakes of the past.

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