Posts Tagged ‘Conception’

ROBERT NOZICK’S CONCEPTION OF THE STATE: A PHILOSOPHICAL EVALUATION

April 10, 2017

Author: Ogbuishi Anthony Abuchi
Department: Philosophy
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

The state viewed from Nozick’s perspective as argued in his Anarchy, State and Utopia, should control no more power than the minimal function of guaranteeing the entitlement rights of the individual citizens. In the named book, Nozick expounded a conservative and libertarian notion of the minimal state and the entitlement theory of justice as against the reformative and egalitarian notions of the state and distributive justice advanced in John Rawl’s book, A theory of Justice. The problematic, that this study undertakes to investigate borders on the strength and achievements of Nozick’s conception of the minimal state. Accordingly, the study, in seeking reasonably justifiable answers is poised to know: the extent of correctness of Robert Nozick libertarian and minimal conception of the state. It probes into the seeming ‘neutrality’ of Nozick’s conception of justice – his just and minimal state. In other words this study wish to scrutinize or perhaps clearly establish whether or not Nozick’s theory of justice succeeded in closing the gap that leads to oppression in the society. And why Nozick tends to hold curiously an anti-social and anarchistic postures regarding justice in state also forms part of our probing. Though the views on ‘the state’ have relatively changed through the ages, a general philosophical conceptualization of the state would at least be said to have been based on the origin, formation, nature, character, essence and purpose, of the state; the use of state power and apparatus; the entitlements and rights, of both the state officials and citizenry; and on how the ideal state should be. While this line of thought is what provides or informs our background, the subject of our study is Robert Nozick’s conception of the state. Having in mind the task of this study, which is to evaluate from the philosophical point of view Nozick’s notion of the state, the method adopted for this work is basically analytical which consists in analysis and would involve a step by step process of clarification of concepts by an elucidation of their use to our discourse. Our major findings are: that Nozick’s conception of the state is a defence of capitalism and free-market economy; Nozick is opposed to socialism and its welfarism but would tolerate this and / or other socialist activities so long as these do not infringe on the individuals rights which for him are basic and absolute. This rather immaculate Nozickean notion of the state is hard to attain and even if it is realized could easily relapse into anarchic society.

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EFFECTS OF COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ANAMBRA STATE, NIGERIA

November 3, 2016

Author: Okeke Chinwe Susan
Department: Cooperative Economics and Management
Affiliation: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka

This research was on the effects of community participation in rural development in Anambra State, Nigeria. This was in terms of conception, implementation and use of rural development projects. The research design for the study was descriptive. The population for the study was 4,182,032. A sample of four hundred (400) was drawn using Taro Yamani and multistage sampling techniques. The major sources of data were primary data which was drawn mainly with a questionnaire. Secondary data such as text books, journals and internet material were used for the review of related literature. The instruments used for analysis were both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics used were table, mean and standard deviation while inferential statistics was regression analysis. Chi Square test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that rural people participated in the establishment of rural projects such as markets and rural roads. Their participation in establishment and use of rural projects were found to have been influenced by their socio-economic background such as age, marital status and association. The most significant were age and marital status. Indeed, use of rural development projects was found to have significantly enhanced their socio-economic wellbeing. However, certain challenges such as illiteracy, needs differences among others constrain them from participating in rural development activities. In view of the findings, the researcher recommended that the literacy level of the rural dwellers should be improved through formal and informal education such as film shows, counseling, seminars and evening classes. Also, the level of participation by the rural dwellers should be increased through sensitization programmes that will enable them form more community based organizations such as fund raisers association and farmers’ association.

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PREVALENCE OF COMMON PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS AMONG WOMEN IN NNEWI METROPOLIS, FROM 2004 TO 2008

April 7, 2012

AUTHOR: NDUBUISI ANULIKA

DEPARTMENT: HUMAN KINETICS AND HEALTH EDUCATION

AFFILIATION: NNAMDI AZIKIWE UNIVERSITY, AWKA

This study was designed to determine the prevalence of common pregnancy complications among women in Nnewi metropolis, from 2004 to 2008. Twelve research questions and eleven hypotheses were postulated for the study. Literatures on common pregnancy complications were reviewed. The data for the study were collected from the folders of pregnant women who attended antenatal clinic and/or delivered at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi. Being a retrospective study, there was no need for sampling, as all the folders of pregnant women that were deposited at the hospital’s Health Records Department within the period of study were analysed. Eight hundred and twenty one (821) pregnant women were recorded to have attended antenatal clinic and/or delivered at the hospital within the five year period. Research questions postulated for the study were answered using percentages, charts and table presentations. Also, hypotheses stated were tested, using the Chi square statistic at 0.05 level of significance. The results showed that most common pregnancy complication in Nnewi metropolis from 2004 to 2008 was malaria (20.24%), followed by haemorrhage (13.97%), retroviral disease (10.11%), preeclampsia (8.05%), and placenta praevia (6.67%). The least common pregnancy complication was ectopic pregnancy (2.07%), followed by uterine rupture (2.07%), placenta abruption (2.30%), gestational diabetes (3.45%). Of the 821 pregnancies recorded at NAUTH, Nnewi, from 2004 to 2008, 52.98 percent had various pregnancy complications, while 47.02 percent had no complications. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of common pregnancy complications of the women in Nnewi metropolis from 2004 to 2008, based on age, education, occupation and Christian denomination. The following pregnancy complications resulted in maternal death in Nnewi metropolis from 2004 to 2008: anaemia (18.18%), eclampsia (18.18%), breech presentation (9.09%), preeclampsia (9.09%), preterm labour (9.09%), PPROM (9.09%), uterine rupture (9.09%), retroviral disease (9.09%) and hypertension (9.09%). Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that public awareness campaigns should be intensified amongst women in Nnewi metropolis to educate them on common pregnancy complications, their signs and symptoms and possible preventive measures. This could be accomplished through seminars, workshops and conferences organized by relevant government and non-governmental agencies during Women’s gatherings like August meetings.

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